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    题名: 隨機需求下航空快遞貨物裝櫃規劃模式之研究;A Cargo Container Loading Plan Model for Air Express Delivery under Stochastic Demands
    作者: 蕭妃晏;Fei-Yen Hsiao
    贡献者: 土木工程研究所
    关键词: 模擬;隨機需求;非線性混合整數規劃問題;貨物裝櫃規劃;航空快遞業;Simulation;Stochastic demand;Nonlinear mixed integer programs;Cargo container loading plan;Air express carriers
    日期: 2005-06-18
    上传时间: 2009-09-18 17:18:50 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 近年來,國際航空快遞業成長迅速且競爭激烈,因此快遞業者在營運上相當重視時效性的掌握,所以良好的貨物裝櫃規劃,除需考量各營運機場的處理成本、相關作業措施等因素外,亦需考量市場需求在營運中的不確定性。然而,以往業界多以經驗法則及人工判斷來做決策,此做法在面臨大型空運中心及複雜的營運環境下,缺乏效率及效果。因此,本研究以航空快遞業者的立場,考量實際營運限制及市場需求之隨機變動狀況,以營運成本最小化為目標,構建確定性及隨機性需求之貨物裝櫃規劃模式。本研究模式期能於未來實務的應用上,提供快遞業者有效的決策工具,以期幫助快遞業者在隨機環境中,規劃最佳的航空快遞貨物裝櫃決策。 本研究利用數學規劃方法構建確定性需求裝櫃模式,並進一步修正確定性需求裝櫃模式中之固定需求值為隨機需求值,建立以模擬為基礎之隨機性需求裝櫃模式。此二模式可定式為非線性混合整數規劃問題,屬於NP-hard問題,求解上利用分段線性技巧、模擬技巧及數學規劃軟體,以求解模式。另為評估確定性與隨機性需求裝櫃模式於隨機環境中營運的績效,本研究發展一模擬評估方法。最後,為測試本研究模式、解法與評估方法的實務營運績效,本研究利用C電腦程式語言撰寫程式,配合CPLEX數學規劃軟體,進行求解,並以一航空快遞公司之亞太地區的營運資料為例進行模式之測試與評估分析,進而提出結論與建議。 In recent years, international air express carriers have grown rapidly. The markets become very competitive for the carriers. International air express carriers rather emphasize on time-definite deliveries. A good cargo container loading plan is therefore essential to international air express carriers’ operating cost, profit and competitive capability in the market. In Order to design a good cargo container loading plan, a carrier not only has to consider the airport operating cost and operations, but also has to consider the uncertainty of the market demand in actual operations. However, in current practice the cargo container loading plan is typically solved in a manual way with staff’s experience, which is neither effective nor efficient, especially for the environment involving large hubs and complicated network operations today. Considering stochastic daily market demands in actual operations, in this research, on the basis of the international air express carriers’ perspective, we try to develop a deterministic-demand and a stochastic-demand cargo container loading model, with the objective of minimizing the operating cost , subject to the related operating constraints. The models are expected to be useful planning tools for international air express carriers to decide on their optimal air cargo loading plans in their operations. We employed mathematical programming techniques to construct the deterministic-demand cargo container loading model. Then, we further establish the stochastic-demand cargo container loading model by modifying the fixed demand parameters in the deterministic-demand cargo container loading model. These two models are expectedly formulated as nonlinear mixed integer programs that are characterized as NP-hard. We employed piece-wise linear functions, simulation techniques, coupled with a mathematical programming solver and computer programs to solve the problems. To evaluate the models and the solution algorithms under stochastic demands in actual operations, we developed a simulation-based evaluation method. Finally, to evaluate the models, the solution methods and the evaluation method in practice, we performed a case study on personal computers, using real operating data from an international air express carrier, with the assistance of C computer programs and the mathematical programming solver, CPLEX. Then show the conclusions and suggestions.
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