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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/2495

    Title: 駕駛模擬儀之開發驗證及應用於駕駛疲勞之研究;Development, validation and application of driving simulation on driver fatigue
    Authors: 丁秉煌;Ping-Huang Ting
    Contributors: 機械工程研究所
    Keywords: 運輸安全;駕駛模擬儀;系統驗證;駕駛疲勞;transportation safety;driver fatigue;systems verification;driving simulator
    Date: 2008-06-18
    Issue Date: 2009-09-21 11:48:30 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 長時間或長距離的高速公路駕駛已是國人無可避免的活動,但疲勞事故與重大傷害的新聞卻時有所聞,顯見駕駛疲勞被車輛駕駛人所忽略。基於大眾運輸安全的認知上,駕駛時間與駕駛疲勞之間的關係以及駕駛疲勞對於駕駛人的影響應該被深入探討,且以更為客觀的實驗數據來進行說明。同時,駕駛模擬儀(DS)可提供一個即時互動的室內駕駛環境,具有降低實驗成本、增加實驗項目、確保實驗重現性與避免實車試驗危險等多種優點,為交通、人因、土木等領域的重要研究工具之一。然而,此類系統須先經過一系列的功能測試,證實其具有足夠的真實感與穩定度,方能確保實驗結果的可靠度。因此,本研究經由眾多文獻搜集而規劃出駕駛模擬儀應該具備的功能項目,並針對較具關鍵性的視覺系統進行多種的校正試驗,以找出其與實車駕駛時之差異性並提出有效的改善方法。之後再利用駕駛模擬儀進行駕駛疲勞的探討,以找出可提供公路駕駛時的安全資訊。 在駕駛模擬儀視覺系統校正方面,進行了虛擬場景效能測試、交通標誌感知辨識評估、煞車燈感知反應評估等三種的校正試驗。研究結果顯示畫面更新頻率會影響視覺系統的流暢度,而本研究所呈現的顯示效能遠高於Forbes的建議值。在交通標誌辨識與煞車燈感知反應兩項試驗結果則證實虛擬環境下的視覺景深、空間辨識度都與真實環境有顯著性的差異,因而影響遠近物件的辨識能力。在遠距離的交通標誌辨識結果清楚顯示出,虛擬試驗結果比起實車試驗結果來的短,但藉由尺寸放大校正後可使其逼近實車結果,同時本研究所推導出的辨識距離公式可獲得與虛擬實驗近似的辨識結果,能應用於DS視覺系統的建置。在近距離的煞車燈感知反應試驗方面,虛擬試驗結果比起實車試驗結果來的短,約有5-6公尺的差距,而此差異同樣存在於不同的車速條件。 在高速公路駕駛疲勞探討方面,主要透過多種主客觀指標來評估一模擬駕駛過程,駕駛人的警覺心、生理機能與駕駛績效等多種行為能力的變化。由分析結果可得知駕駛時間的增加,不僅會增加駕駛人的嗜睡慾望且降低駕駛警覺心外,更會減弱駕駛人生心理的活動力與感知反應能力。透過Pearson關聯性分析結果不僅找出多種與疲勞具顯著關聯的評估變數,可作為未來在疲勞偵測系統的有效指標外。同時由多種綜合指標的分析結果也證實到,在單調無趣的高速公路上,較為安全的單趟駕駛時間約在90分鐘左右。雖然相較於室內的虛擬駕駛,駕駛人可能在實車駕駛時可能會有比在DS有更為認真或是積極的實驗態度,但比對Nilsson等人的研究後可得知,本實驗結果仍提供了一個相當明確的疲勞預防機制,就是在長途駕駛過程時,駕駛人應適時的下交流道來稍作休息,不僅可提振疲勞所降低的生心理活動力外,更可有效降低疲勞事故發生的風險性。 Due to fast growth of motorized vehicles, driver fatigue is a major cause of accidents on motorways or major roadways and should be a focus of public education regarding the safety of transport. However, this area has been relatively neglected. The driving simulator (DS) has been regarded an effective tool for previewing and assessing new concepts and further constructions. In addition, compared to on-road vehicle test, DS have many advantanges like a safer and controlled environment, and allow the replication of experiment situations. Therefore, a realistic DS is a useful and economical tool employed to explore driver behavior in relation to ITS technologies and to different drivers, vehicles, roads, and environmental situations. Nevertheless, a high-fidelity DS need many kinds of validated experiments to test and verify its reliability and stability during the development processes, particularly the visual environment. Therefore, the author integrated the validated experiments of visual environment between the on-road test and simulated test. The analytic results clearly indicated that the differences of legibility distances of different objects between driving simulators and real road environments, no matter the objects is traffic sign or braking light. The legibility distances of objects on simulated test all significantly shorter than the field test. Thus, this study proposes a simple algorithm for determining the magnification of a traffic sign for a display system in a simulator. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method of this study can reduce the difference of legibility distances between two different visual environments. The author also applied DS system to investigate drive fatigue of highway driving. This study quantitatively dertermined the progression of fatigue by means of analyzing several experimental measures. Sleepiness ratings (SSS) and Borg’s category ratio (CR-10) were used to assess impairment of driver alertness and sleepiness experience. Four objective measures, including reaction time testing, physiolofical parameters, fatigue symptoms, and driving performance, were used to determine the fatigue influence of driving safety. Furthermore, several compound indexes were used to assess temporal deterioration of driving ability from alert to fatigued using principal component analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that excessive driving is a potential cause of fatigue-related accidents. Moreover, analytical results indicated that 90 minutes was the safe duration while driving on monotonous highway. Based on the experimental findings, this study provides explicit information of fatigue development and its impact on driving safety that can be used to prevent fatigue-related accidents.
    Appears in Collections:[機械工程研究所] 博碩士論文

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