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|Title: ||試探莫里佐生命及繪畫中之嫉羨、欠缺與替代;Envy, lack, and substitution in Berthe Morisot's life and her creations|
|Keywords: ||憂鬱;雙重;畫作;生命;替代;欠缺;嫉羨;莫里佐;jalous;substitution;double;melancolie;lack;Berthe Morisot;envie|
|Issue Date: ||2010-06-11 15:12:44 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||本文將透過莫里佐(Berthe Morisot)的繪畫作品與其個人生命，以佛洛依德及其他精神分析師作品之精神分析理念，來探索這位十九世紀女性布爾喬亞畫家，如何將其個人情感中的嫉羨、欠缺 與替代，無意識地投射在其繪畫作品上。莫里佐並非以圖利為目的進行創作 ;她除了印象派畫展，幾乎不參加任何公開展覽。繪畫作品成為她記述自己的經驗與印象的圖像日記，不僅僅表現情感，且同時成為治療工具，將其精神上所承受之分離及潛藏欲望，透過構圖、明暗、線條、顏色的堆積，光影的變化，人物的組合，釋放於畫布之上。 第一章節主要透過莫里佐的生平，社會背景，以及當代的藝術環境，來探索女性藝術家的所處環境與面臨的困境。在當時社會，女性畫家，不僅備受質疑，參展作品引發爭議，促使女性必須承受相當的壓力。莫里佐與印象派成員的關係發展，及她個人對繪畫的野心，雖是成就其成為畫家的原因，但同時也會激發她對女性身分的質疑、衝突及焦慮，尤有甚者，其今日的藝術地位，往往因為其女性身分而揚升，而非著眼於其作品本身，性別意識明顯凌駕藝術價值。 第二章主要在剖析其童年經驗，追溯幼年時期父愛的欠缺，如何成為莫里佐憂鬱的原初傷痛(trauma originaire)，從而導致她將關注客體移轉至姐姐愛瑪(Edma)身上，並且將其含納，形成雙重。在面對分離的創傷所形成的缺口時，自身必須移情至另一客體。且為了區隔馬內(Edouard Manet)和莫里佐之間的移情與愛情，我們發現莫里佐所尋求的情感替代並非偶發。種種創傷事件引發莫里佐個人不同層次的情感的負面反應，包括自我貶抑、妒忌及艷羨等等。 第三章將討論莫里佐在創作過程中，繪畫所扮演的角色及其功能。對一位十九世紀的女性而言，成為職業畫家並非易事，必須尋求家庭支持，尤其是丈夫的認可與犧牲。繪畫作為藝術產品，同時也扮演治療的角色，因此畫布不僅提供欲望實現的場景，且同時舒緩畫家的創傷症狀。筆者將配合其莫里佐個人書寫，檢視繪畫作為治療工具，在莫里佐的案例中，治療過程及效果。 Applying methods by Freud Sigmund and by other psychoanalysts to the private life and the paintings of Berthe Morisot, I propose to study this nineteenth-century painterřs unconsciously projecting his personal feelingsŕenvy, lack, and substitutionŕinto her art works. Painting, as a form of work of art, is least regarded as a way profit making. She thus shuns away from any exhibitions, except for those of impressionists. Paintings are not only the manifestation of personal feelings and a way of healing, but also a picturesque diary that preserves her own life experiences and impressions. Through the combinations of designs, lines, colors, paints, shades, and characters on the canvas, the painter relieves her psychological separation and hidden desires In the first chapter, references are drawn from the painterřs life, the social background, and the contemporary art. It is known that female painters back then are not only sexually discriminated but also professionally challenged, whose art works are severely criticized. Besides, Morisot is closely related to the impressionist movement. Her ambition in painting, which on the one hand makes her a great painter, on the other hand, casts doubts, evokes conflicts, and causes anxieties on her female identity. Even more, can her artistic accomplishment be simply achieved owing to the fact that the position, rather than her works of art per se, of female artists are being promoted? The question is : does sexual consciousness supersede artistic achievement? The second chapter is the study of Morisotřs childhood, in which the painter lacks paternal love. This has thus become Morisotřs original trauma. Can this lead to a shift of her subject of concern into Sister Edma, which integrates and transforms into a double so as to supplement the lack of paternal love. The trauma has created a crack. In confronting the crack, the subject is forced to transfer it into an object. In order to iii differentiate Morisotřs transfer and love from those of Edouard Manet, we find out that the emotional substitution sought by Morisot must not be interpreted random. Those traumatic incidents cause negative reaction from Moriost : the loss of self-esteem, envy and jealousy. The third chapter analyses the role and function of painting in Morisot under external as well as internal pressure. To a nineteenth-century woman, it is not easy to become a professional painter. She must seek support from her family, especially her husbandřs recognition and sacrifice. Painting is not only an artistic product, but also a function of healing. The canvas can be seen as the silhouette for desire. It also alleviates the painterřs traumatic pains. In light of Moriostřs personal letters, I examine the healing effect in Morisotřs case since she has considered painting as a cure.|
|Appears in Collections:||[法國語文研究所 ] 博碩士論文|
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