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|Authors: ||林麗櫻;Li-ying Lin|
|Issue Date: ||2009-09-21 11:53:10 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||在自然環境的地形、土壤與水源等諸多不利的因素之下，桃園成為臺灣西部沿海拓殖最晚之區。在解決灌溉用水之後土壤趨於肥沃，稻穀自清代桃園部分地區即能一年二穫，本區成為台灣農業經濟重要的地區之一，而稻米生產即為戰後工業開展前本區經濟命脈之所繫。清代開港之後，台灣經濟以農業和貿易為主的特質並未改變，茶、糖、樟腦成為台灣易取的工業原料和主要出口品。清朝中葉之後，本區的米穀、茶、煤、樟腦即是重要的生產物資，也使桃園地區進入世界的貿易體系。 日本據臺五十年之間，因為日人的各項經濟政策，配合當時極為現代的商業金融、基礎建設、新式教育等措施，使臺灣能在日據時期得以進入工業化社會的入口。然而本區在日據時期的商業，多建立在農業基礎之上；除了碾米工業和製茶工業外，桃園地區在整個日據時期並無發展出其他可觀之現代工業，顯示日本自昭和七年(1932)開始逐步調整生產結構增加工業生產，開始對台灣進行工業化的政策，對地處北臺邊緣的桃園地區之影響可說是微乎其微；而戰後臺灣北部區域之工業自民國四十二年(1953)起迅速增加，但在1960年代工業區設立前，桃園縣的工業成長低於全臺的平均增加率，當時桃園縣的工業尚未蓬勃開展，與桃園地區位於北部區域的邊陲地帶應有極大之關係；在此時期本區純粹的農業地帶，例如觀音與大園的農業人口分別佔了總人口的86%和68%；人口增加的比例竟也佔了縣內當年調查的第三和第四名，顯示在1960年之前，桃園仍是個尚未過渡到工業社會的農業大縣。 民國四十九年至五十九年(1960~1970)間，為避開台北盆地洪水氾濫與香港暴動，使政府有計畫的在桃園設立工業區與擴大工業用地，頓使農村聚落地區變成工業地帶。本區自政府大型工業區開始設立之後，或因工廠的群聚效應，或因成為台北之衛星都市對移動人口的吸力所致，桃園縣在1970年代工商各業便有蓬勃的發展。到了民國八十五年(1996)台灣地區已完成之工業區共有95處，其中桃園縣便有14處居全省之冠；而各縣市已完成之工業區的總面積也以桃園縣為最大，工業區林立成為桃園的地方特色之一。本區工業的產業結構，不管在工廠家數、工廠員工人數、營業收入、各產業總產值、附加價值、固定設備投資等方面，均在台灣省工業有不可忽視的地位。 在縣內工業蓬勃發展之後，本區的社會和經濟層面均產生質和量的變化。桃園縣從事第二級和第三級產業的人口年年升高，顯示縣內歷年各級產業人口數變化，乃是跟著臺灣戰後經濟發展的政策而演變。縣內逐年增加的人口社會增減千分率，使桃園縣現住戶人口數和人口密度增減率的成長數字均高於臺灣省多數縣市；而逐年減少的人口自然增減千分率，使桃園縣的人口自然動態呈現負成長。然而從各地移入的青壯年勞動力，使縣內的生產年齡人口的扶養負擔逐年降低；工商蓬勃發展後，性別比例及平均每戶人數逐年的降低，也代表桃園地區社會的移墾型態逐漸減弱，形成多元的移民社會。工業發展除了促進原有工業市鎮的繁榮之外，也替若干新市鎮帶來新功能。桃園縣內工業區一一設立後，就業者的教育程度逐年提升，其中特別值得注意的是桃園縣女性就業者的學歷提高的幅度相當驚人！所以桃園縣女性人口勞動力質與量的大幅提升，對本區經濟發展之貢獻日益增加。另外，本區隨著近年來教育的普及和開放，適時地提供產業升級所需的大批高等教育程度的人力，更是造成桃園縣工商業迅速發展的主要原因。 桃園縣能由農業大縣，轉變成臺灣的工業重鎮，實與新式水利事業之興築、交通建設之改善、教育程度之提升和工業區的設置有相當之關係，亦即在臺灣戰後經濟發展的脈絡之下，桃園縣社會經濟之變遷，主要受到政策、區位以及基礎建設等重大因素所影響。工商業蓬勃發展後，對提高人民收入有相當的幫助，使桃園縣各項稅捐實徵數逐年大幅增加，但農家收入之成長卻遠不及非農家收入之成長。醫療水準和自來水供水普及率，也隨著生活水準的提升而提高。然而當縣內汽機車輛的數量在工業開展後呈爆炸性的成長，桃園縣內與各主要工業區交通脈絡緊密相連的省道和縣道，在工業開展的三十年之間則是成長極少。而縣內跟不上都市人口快速成長的下水道基礎建設，加上政府單位也沒有對蓬勃的工商業者所排出污水進行嚴密之管控，使得本區多數河川污染嚴重！桃園之稅收列為全國各縣市的名列前茅，但是桃園整體的公共基礎建設不足，環境品質則迅速惡化。 民國五十五年(1966)之前，不管是在北部都市生活圈或經濟圈裡均屬於邊陲地區的桃園縣，在經過近三十年之工業發展，成為台灣省工商重鎮的發展歷程，在所有產業都將成為第三級產業的今日，如何因應全球化腳步，整合各區域之特色與資源，形成「三生平衡」（生產、生態、生活）之工商業發展，帶動社會經濟正面之影響與桃園縣整體產業的永續發展，以避免臺灣在國際經濟市場日趨邊緣化的命運，桃園縣工業發展「後來居上」的經驗，應具有相當大的啟發性。 Under the limitation of the disadvantageous factors of the natural environment, such as the terrain, the soil and the water source and so on, Tao-Yuan became the latest reclamation region of the west coast of Taiwan. After reserved the irrigation water problem, the soil tended to fertilely, the rice can harvest twice a year from the Qing-dynasty in some regions of Tao-Yuan. The region of Tao-Yuan became one of important areas of the agricultural economy of Taiwan and the rice production influenced the economic development in the times after the postwar and before the industry development of Taiwan. As the Taiwan harbor set in the Qing-dynasty, the economy characteristic by agriculture and trade of Taiwan does not change. The tea, sugar and camphor were the easily obtained industry raw material in Taiwan and to become the main industry export of Taiwan. After the medium generation of Qing-dynasty, the rice, tea, coal and camphor became the important production goods and materials in this region. These products cause Tao Yuan to enter the world trade system. In the 50 years of the Japanese occupied Taiwan, according to the economic policies of the Japan Government and the extremely modern measures of the commercial finance, base infrastructure, and new education, Taiwan became an almost-industrialization society. But the trade was established on the agricultural foundation. There were not any considerable modern industries in this region except the husk rice industry and the tea manufacturing industry. The phenomenon showed that the influence of the Japan Government policy, gradually adjusted the production structure to increase the industrial production started from 1932 to carry on the industrialization to Taiwan, was not worth mentioning. After the World War II, the industries of north postwar of Taiwan were rapid increasing from 1953, but the industry growth rate of Tao-Yuan was lower than the entire average increment rate of Taiwan until the industrial districts establishment at 1960. Thus, the Tao-Yuan industry not yet vigorously developed from 1953 to 1960. Tao-Yuan was located at the border region may be supposed to have the enormous relations. In the time from 1953 to 1960, this region was a pure agriculture region, for examples, the agricultural population of the Guan-Yin town and Da-Yuan town has separately accounted for the total population 86% and 68%. Furthermore, the population increasing proportions of the Guan-Yin town and Da-Yuan town were third and fourth in the county investigation unexpectedly. That is the Tao-Yuan still was not yet an industry society but an agricultural county before 1960. From 1960 to 1970, due to the flood of Taipei basin and the riot of Hong Kong, the government set the industrial districts and built more industry soils in Tao-Yuan. After the large-scale industrial district establishment by the government, due to the effect of factory gathering in large numbers and a special attraction for the population as Tao-Yuan became the satellite town of the Taipei, the industry and commerce of Tao-Yuan had the vigorous development in 1970 ages. Taiwan Government had completed 95seats of industrial districts in 1996. There were 14 seats of industrial districts located at the region of Tao-Yuan. The total areas of industrial districts in Tao-Yuan were the biggest than the other counties of Taiwan. The industrial districts standing in great numbers became one of the place characteristics of Tao-Yuan. The industry industrial structure of Tao-Yuan, no matter in the numbers of factory and staffs, the business incomes, the various industrial total output values, the attachment values and the fixed equipment investment, has the noticeable status in the Taiwan industry. After the industry vigorous development, the society and economy of Tao-Yuan have the nature and the quantity changes. The people engaged in second level of and the third level of industrial population in Tao-Yuan elevated year after year. The phenomenon demonstrated the industries population number changes in Tao-Yuan were evolving with the Taiwan postwar economy development policy in these years. The population society fluctuation rate per thousand of Tao-Yuan increased year by year caused the present inhabitant populations and the population density decrease or increase rate of Tao-Yuan were greater than the most cities of Taiwan. Moreover, the population nature fluctuation rate per thousand reduced year by year caused the population nature movement of Tao-Yuan to present the negative growth. However, the young adults labor force moved in from other places caused the nurture burden of the production age population in Tao-Yuan to reduce year by year. And the sex proportion and average populations of each household were reducing yearly after the industry and commerce vigorous developments were also demonstrated that the society style of immigration and reclamation of Tao-Yuan was gradually changed to a diversification immigration society. The development of industrial would promote the prosperity of the original industry town and also bring some new capability for some new cities. In addition, the populations accepted medium education in Tao-Yuan was 2/3 of the total labor populations in 1996. The higher education young populations were far outdone the old populations. It showed the education level of the employees was promoted year-by-year. More attention, the education level of the female employees was enhanced to a greater level. Therefore, the promotion of the quality and the quantity of the feminine population labor force in Tao-Yuan increased the economy development day by day. As the education popularization and opening with the recent years provided the large quantities of higher education degree manpower to satisfy the industry promoted needs at the right moment were the main reason for the rapid development of industry and commerce in Tao-Yuan. The Tao-Yuan county could transform by agricultural county to the industry strategic place of Taiwan were due to the establishment of new conservancy and irrigation works, the transportation improvement, the promotion of the level of education as well as the foundation of industrial districts made up by the Taiwan Government, that is, under the Taiwan postwar economy development vein, the vicissitudes of the society and economy of Tao-Yuan mainly caused by the factor of the policy, position as well as infrastructure. The people's income enhanced gradually after the industry and commerce vigorous development in Tao-Yuan, it also made the tax incomes were largely increasing yearly. But the growth of the peasant family incomes was far inferior to the growth of the non-peasant family incomes. The medical standard and the water supply rate also enhance along with the level of living promotion. However, the quantity of the cars and motorcycles in the county were explosively increased after the industrial development growth, the transportation veins linked the main industrial district were extremely few in the industry development 30 years. Furthermore, the sewer infrastructure cannot follow the metropolis population fast growth in Tao-Yuan and the government had not strictly controlled the sewage discharged by the vigorous industrialists and businessmen caused the most rivers pollution to be serious! The tax revenue of Tao-Yuan was in the top of the flight, but the whole public infrastructures were still insufficiently and the environment quality worsened rapidly. Before 1966, no matter in the north city life circle or the economical circle, the region of Tao-Yuan was in the border area. Passing through about 30 years’ industrial development, Tao-Yuan became the important industrial and commercial city of Taiwan. As today all industries of Taiwan will become third level of industry, how to following the globalization footsteps and consolidating the characteristics and resources of the various regions to develop the industry and commerce under the stable states of the productive, ecological and living and make Taiwan to avoid the edge destiny in the international economy market day by day. The experience of Tao-Yuan industrial development surpassed the other counties will be supposed to have the quite edification.|
|Appears in Collections:||[機械工程學系碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文|
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