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    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/2976


    題名: 營造業勞工安全衛生管理法定義務與責任類型化之研究;Study on Categorization of Statutory Obligation and Liability of connstruction Labor Safety
    作者: 吳品賢;Pin-hsien Wu
    貢獻者: 營建管理研究所
    關鍵詞: 營造業;勞工安全衛生;職業災害;法定義務;法定責任;legal liability;labor safety;work injuries;statutory obligation
    日期: 2003-06-06
    上傳時間: 2009-09-21 12:02:41 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 近年來,營造業職災千人率居各行業之冠,係因其特性所致,如工種繁多、低價搶標、多層承攬等,造成勞工安全衛生管理不易。由於多層分包之體制下,其僱傭及承攬契約關係並不單純,又職災發生原因繁多,導致法定義務及責任錯綜複雜。 本研究蒐集88年至90年各級法院對營造業職業災害之裁判,擬藉由刑事、民事裁判及行政處分之歸納、整理與比對,並結合一般及勞動法規,針對其雇主與事業單位之認定、勞工安全之法定義務及職業災害之法定責任範圍、違反事實、涉及法規與法律效果等予以類型化,並追究營造業勞工安全中應盡義務之檢驗標準,提出落實勞安之管理配套措施,希冀供營造廠及分包商於勞工安全管理時之參考,進而降低營造業之職業災害。 對於勞工安全衛生法所稱之雇主及事業單位之認定標準,應視彼此之間的關係而定,其僱傭關係或承攬關係則依實際情況而有所不同。實務上雇主之認定不侷限於民法上「僱傭關係」,即使他方雖未直接僱用勞工從事工作,但他方對另一方於施工過程時具有監督、指揮、統籌、規劃及懲處之權,即具事實上之僱傭關係,認定擁有權力者為勞工安全衛生法之雇主。對於事業單位而言,須具備有「雇主」之性質,有些承攬作業與計件工資之勞工性質頗為相似,應以實際作業情況與事先約定條件來認定。 雇主於安全衛生管理之法定義務繁多,大都以應提供安全工作場所及完善標準安全設施之義務為主,而事業單位之法定義務雖未如勞工之雇主來的多,但對於工地中職業災害之防止亦佔相當重要之地位,其法定義務主要為協調介面、聯繫工作及協助安全衛生管理等。勞工安全衛生法對於雇主所課責任,係以雇主違反該法所規定之各項義務即為成立,亦即課以雇主對於事業工作場所應有必要之安全衛生設施與管理之責任。而雇主及事業單位、各級承攬人等應積極投入勞工安全衛生之管理,以避免職業災害之發生,否則一旦災害發生時,即使其並無違反勞工安全衛生相關法規等法定義務之標準,仍可能被檢察署或法院認定未盡其注意義務,須為其災害擔負責任,而受到以「業務過失」罪刑起訴。 於法定義務之檢驗標準,平時除法規有明確之數字標準外,因義務之標準尚有許多不明確之模糊地帶,導致許多爭點發生,而法院於判斷義務標準及責任歸屬時,主要以勞工法規、行政規則及標準、機關函釋、工程慣例或以其他標準類推等作為其義務標準之依據。 This work collects court judgments concerning construction labor safety in Taiwan from 1999 to 2001. These cases are grouped by jurisdictions, ie., criminal, civil and administrative courts. The cases in each group are organized and compared, according to labor safety laws and regulations. The focus of this work includes (1) testing the standard of employer in law (ie., the subject of labor safety regulations), and (2) identification employer obligation of labor safety in construction, and (3) summarizing the associated legal liability. The true merit of this work lies in the necessity of court interpretation of labor safety laws and regulations, because the extent of legal wording is far from clear and operational by practitioners. In a sense, the ruling in court becomes the determining factor resulting in employers’ liability, rather than how the parties read the legal texts. Thus, the benefit of examining court interpretations of law is particular high. It is concluded in this work, one of the key factor that puts one into labor safety dispute is whether an employer-worker relationship exists and is substantial. Then, when such relationships exist, there can still be of one-to-many type. Thus, the injured work (plaintiff) can decide whom to pursue with. The question now degenerates into which employer in law, when sued, will be burdened a maximum liability. Another rich area of dispute cause concerns employers’ many statutory obligations. As the so-called “due care” becomes unmanageable in reality, one can say disputes exist since day one of construction. Although these employer obligations can be met with more investment, the lowest bidder finds little incentive towards this mentality. The intriguing fact directs one to seek leeway to obligations. Again, court opinions on this matter are strong and worth highlighting. The contribution of this work is a vehicle for practitioners to reach into hundreds of relevant and important legal opinions and interpretations concerning labor safety in construction. In future, a Management Information System may be built upon this outcome to assist in more experience and knowledge sharing in organizations.
    顯示於類別:[營建管理研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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