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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/3239

    Title: 石油碳氫化合物污染場址健康風險評估之研究;Health Risk Assessment of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Site
    Authors: 姚瑞良;Jui-Liang Yao
    Contributors: 環境工程研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 敏感度分析;致癌風險;RBCA;健康風險評估;石油碳氫化合物;RBCA;cancer risk;sensitivity analysis;petroleum hydrocarbon;health risk assessment
    Date: 2005-07-09
    Issue Date: 2009-09-21 12:13:24 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 本研究以國內中部某石油碳氫化合物洩漏場址為例,使用美國試驗及材料協會(ASTM)所發展的「風險基準矯正行動應用於石油洩漏場址之評估準則」(Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action Applied at petroleum Release Sites,E 1739-95),評估場址內員工及場址外居民整治前及整治中之暴露風險,探討其最大暴露途徑及主要之敏感參數,並與環保署92年發布之「整治場址污染範圍調查影響環境評估及處理等級評定辦法」所評定出之結果作一探討比較。 研究結果顯示,場址外居民食入蔬果、飲用地下水及使用地下水洗澡,其致癌風險高達1.0 E-4,即使整治中地下水及土壤中之苯濃度已大幅降低,但食入蔬果及飲用、使用地下水各別之致癌風險亦達1.0 E-7之譜。因此,不可食用污染場址或其附近所生產之蔬果,也不可飲用或使用地下水洗澡。 有機污染場址之地下室為其主要危害途徑之一,案例場址內員工主要風險,來自吸入土壤及地下水揮發室內污染之空氣,經由敏感度分析結果顯示,其敏感參數為密閉空間氣體交換率,故地下室應加強通風以降低危害。 本案例場址外居民及學童,假設有飲用或使地下水洗澡,而造成相當高的風險,經由敏感度分析結果,本暴露途徑主要正敏感參數為水力坡降,主要負敏感參數為土壤中有機碳含量。因此儘量避免場址內受污染之地下水流出場外,可有效降低場址外風險,其可藉由水力控制法或築地下連續壁等方式加以拘限、圍堵。 本場址以行政院環保署所發布「整治場址污染範圍調查影響環境評估及處理等級辦法」所評定出結果,地下水為主要污染途徑。而以ASTM所發展的RBCA準則評定出結果,地下水亦為主要污染途徑,兩者評估之結果有其一致性,究其原因,本案例之地下水苯濃度遠高於土壤之苯濃度,且本場址受體主要暴途徑皆與地下水有關,另苯的物化特性、場址之水文地質參數,使地下水途徑得分偏高,因此評估之結果,地下水污染途徑之重要性大於土壤污染途徑。 The objectives of this study were aimed to assess the human health risk of worker and residents near the petroleum hydrocarbons released site in central Taiwan in accordance with ASTM E1739-95, Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) Applied at Petroleum Release Site. Also, the major exposure pathways, analysis of sensitivity parameters and the risk of exposure regardless of correction were investigated in this study. Furthermore, values of the health risk were compared to the results from the Procedures for the Evaluation of Environmental Impact and Treatment Grading on the Definition of the Extent of Contaminants for Remediation Sites, announced by the Taiwan E.P.A. in 2003. According to the study, for residents living outside the site, consuming vegetable, fruits and groundwater, and taking bath with groundwater, the risk of getting cancer is up to 1.0E-4. Even after the benzene concentration in the soil and groundwater has been significantly reduced, consuming of vegetable, fruit and groundwater brought the residents a risk of getting cancer up to 1.0E-7. Therefore, it is not recommendable to consume vegetable, fruits and groundwater from the site or its neighbor land. Basement at organic contaminated site is one of the main pathways of exposure to the risk. The main risk for workers in the site is from inhalation of indoor air contaminated by pollutants volatilized from the soil and groundwater. The result of a sensitivity analysis indicated that the sensitivity parameter is gas exchange rate in closed space. Therefore, sufficient ventilation should be provided at basement to lower the risk. Residents and pupils living outside the site are exposed to a considerable risk provided they drink groundwater or use it for bath. Thought a sensitivity analysis, it was concluded that the positive sensitivity parameter is hydraulic gradient, and the main negative sensitivity parameter is organic carbon content in the soil at the pathway of exposure. Therefore, restricting contaminated groundwater in the site from flowing to the neighbor land can effectively lower the risk outside the site, hydraulic control or construction of underground continuous walls are ways to stop the flow of groundwater to the neighbor land. The result of an evaluation made with the Procedures for the Evaluation of Environmental Impact and Treatment Grading on the Definition of the Extent of Contaminants for Remediation Sites, announced by the Taiwan E.P.A. in 2003 showed that groundwater is the main contamination pathway, and the result of evaluation under ASTM 1739-95 also concluded that groundwater is a main contamination pathway. The results of these two evaluations are consistent. This is because the benzene concentration in the groundwater is much higher than that in the soil, and the main exposure pathways at the site are all related to the groundwater. Moreover, the physical and chemical properties of benzene, the hydrological and soil parameters of the site also contributed to the high score of groundwater in the evaluation. Thus, the groundwater is more important than the soil in the pathways of contamination.
    Appears in Collections:[環境工程研究所碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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