水污染防治策略可分為傳統的行政管制與經濟誘因制度，本論文以探討裁罰基準及水污費徵收對河川污染改善之相關效益，並就政府策略之施行成效進行研究分析，提供相關單位環境決策參考。 94年5月20日行政院環保署實施「違反水污染防治法嚴重污染案件罰鍰額度裁量基準」，擬藉由高額罰鍰抑制污染排放量，本研究以南崁溪流域為主體，分析此基準實施前後流域水質變化，結果顯示稽查處分次數增加、高額罰鍰有助提升污染削減量及改善河川水質。並由歷年監測結果河川水質確實有改善，南崁溪嚴重污染長度已由民國86年之23.1公里降至95年之8.5公里，該政策已達初步預期功效。 政府規劃水污費徵收制度已十餘年，但目前仍未實施，行政院環保署擬藉由未來徵收之水污費收入，執行水體水質改善處理及現地處理設施操作管理、充實污水下水道系統、水體污染管理及緊急應變等工作。本研究依水污費計費規範，推估南崁溪流域事業未來全額徵收後每年約可徵收新臺幣三仟萬元，專款專用於水污染防治使用。 桃園縣工商業聚集且人口眾多，河川多屬混合型污染，生活污水污染量比例甚高，即使大幅降低工廠污染量，仍無法徹底解決河川污染問題，正本清源方法為興建污水下水道系統以求根本解決之道。 The strategy of water pollution control can be divided into two categories, conventional administration and economic inducement. The effect of standard of fines and fee of water pollution control on improving water quality of river is studied in this research. Also, result of government implementing the environmental policy is examined to be a reference for other appropriate authorities. On May 20th 2005, the Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan (EPA) announced a regulation named “standard of fines for serious pollution event that violates water pollution control act”. It is expected to reduce industrial pollutant into river with the high fines. This research mainly focuses on the change in water quality of Nan-Kan river before and after the regulation launched. The obtained result shows that increases in inspection frequency and fines are helpful to pollution abatement and water quality improvement. The seriously polluted zone of this river was greatly reduced from 23.1 km in 1997 to 8.5 km in 2006. The regulation seems to take some effectiveness on the water pollution control. The government has planned to charge fee of water pollution control more than a decade but not carried out yet. The funds from the fee of water pollution control is planned to be used in improving water quality, offering operation cost of the on-site facilities, developing the management of sanitary sewer system, controlling water body pollution, and establishing emergency response. In the future, chargeable budget is about 30 million dollars per year according to the standard of the levy. All of budget will specifically be used to control water pollution. Tao Yuan County is a highly commercial and industrial city in which a large number of residents live. The river pollution in this region is classified as a mixed type. Among the pollution sources, the municipal sanitary waste water is dominant pollution source. This leads to hardly solve water pollution problem even if the industrial pollution is significantly reduced. Therefore, the ultimate solution to the water pollution problem of Tao Yuan County is to construct an overall sanitary sewer system.