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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/3360


    Title: 土壤採樣佈點程序合理化之研究;Study on Appropriate Sampling Methods for Contaminants in Soil in Taiwan
    Authors: 李堯夫;Yao-fu Lee
    Contributors: 環境工程研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 土壤驗證;採樣佈點;土壤採樣;Environmental Data Collection;Soil Contamination;Sampling;Contaminant
    Date: 2007-07-07
    Issue Date: 2009-09-21 12:15:04 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 土壤採樣佈點的目的可分為決定污染物平均值、決定污染範圍與土壤採樣驗證等三部份,特別在決定污染範圍與驗證兩方面,土壤採樣佈點方式將是決定受污染土壤整治復育成功與否的重要關鍵,在以往的採樣佈點方式中,為了避免不必要的紛爭,往往延續傳統的佈點方式,且並未對污染特性及不同的整治復育方式是否適用此佈點方式進行探討,在目前的採樣佈點方式法,依照環檢所公告的方式共有主觀判斷、簡單隨機、系統網格、分層採樣、排序組合、應變叢集與混合採樣七種,在本研究中,收集了部分土壤調查與污染整治復育案例,並對這些案例的採樣佈點方式進行分析,同時在本研究中也依照採樣目的、污染來源、污染物的種類與整治復育的方法討論上述七種佈點方式之適用性,並利用統計的觀點分析適合的採樣樣品數量、採樣的範圍與採樣可能產生之變異性,最後並依照採樣目的提出較適合台灣的採樣佈點方式。經過分析與評估後顯示,若以統計觀點決定土壤驗證之採樣分析結果,將可提供較佳之準確度,儘管採樣目的不同,台灣最常用的採樣佈點方式為系統網格採樣,其他如簡單隨機與混合採樣也常被利用,若以決定污染範圍而言,應變叢集與主觀判斷皆為可被應用的佈點方式,但是針對分層採樣與排序組合等採樣方式因受限於相關配合技術,因此被應用的機會較少,但對於特殊污染狀況,主觀判斷仍有其應用的便利性。如果能夠改善分析技術與多建置前置資訊,分層採樣與排序組合將較簡單隨機採樣節省大量採樣經費。 The objective of soil sampling can be grouped into three types, including determination in average contaminant concentration, contaminated soil boundary, and confirmation of finished soil remediation. An appropriate sampling approach is a key point for effectively remedying the contaminated soil. Sampling design in the past was used to traditional types of data collection in order to reduce trouble but difference resulted from contaminant characteristics and remediation methods were neglected. According to EPA’s guideline of environmental data collection, the seven-step process for soil sampling comprises judgmental sampling, simple random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic and grid sampling, ranked set sampling, adaptive cluster sampling, and composite sampling. In this study, cases of the soil contamination are collected to make a comparison of the sampling methods. On the basis of sampling objective, the appropriate sampling methods were evaluated. The effects of the species of contaminants, such as heavy metal, high volatility compounds and low volatility compounds, and the types of soil remediation, such as in-stiu, on-site and off-site, on soil sampling were discussed. The view of statistic was applied to determine sampling size and data variances. The best sampling methods in Taiwan would be presented with various sampling objective. The obtained result indicates that systematic and grid sampling in Taiwan is applied widely, because it could fit the various sampling objective. The simple random sampling and the composite sampling are effective for determining average concentrations of contaminants. For determining boundary of contamination, the judgmental sampling and the adaptive cluster sampling could be used under specific conditions. The judgmental sampling could obviously save cost, if the information of the contaminated soil has been known. Due to lacking analysis technique and soil information, the use of the stratified sampling and the ranked set sampling is confined. If the above-mentioned conditions can be improved, the efficiencies of the stratified sampling and the ranked set sampling are quite higher than that of the simple random sampling.
    Appears in Collections:[環境工程研究所碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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