自17世紀工業革命以來，工業生產力大幅提升，以高耗能且高污染的生產與消費模式，破壞原本和諧共存的人類自然環境，在追求高度工業化與經濟蓬勃發展的同時，亦使人類賴以生存的自然環境逐漸受到破壞。自1972年聯合國第一次針對環境議題召開人類環境會議，呼籲各國重視環境破壞議題，迄今歷時30餘年的發展，企圖以「永續發展」之概念與原則，解決因環境與發展失衡所造成的全球性環境問題。但時至今日環境問題仍未獲得真正的解決。 本研究即根據永續發展之概念與原則，依循系統思維與系統方法，在永續環境管理架構下，建立一套系統化總量管理制度之基本架構與運作機制，以作為後續我國制定環境管理制度之參考。依據本研究之探討，一套健全的總量管理制度，在程序上必須包括：總量開發、總量調配、總量分配及總量管制四個階段性措施，藉以有效調控人類社會系統與自然生態系統間之資源供需與污染排放，以供需平衡的方式維持人類-自然生態系統的可持續性，是現階段解決環境問題的唯一手段。就國家發展而言，建立一套健全之總量管理制度，更能有效提升國家整體發展之效率與效益。 Industrial productivity has been improved greatly since the industrial revolution in the 17th century. The energy-consuming and highly-polluted mode of production and consumption has upset the balance between humans and the nature. The natural environment which humans cannot live without is being damaged while humans are in pursuit of heavy industrialization and economical prosperity. The United Nations held its first “UN Conference on the Human and Environment” in 1972, targeting on environmental issues to call on countries around the world to consider the environmental damage issues. Since then, more than 30 years have passed; yet, modern environmental issues are not truly settled now though the principle and conception of sustainable development is applied to solve the global environmental issues caused by the imbalance between environment and development. According to the conception and principle of sustainable development, the study was aimed at following the systems thinking and the systems approach to establish, under the structure of sustainable environment management, the fundamental structure and operational mechanism of systematic total quantity management so as to serve as a reference for making future domestic environmental management policies. The study believed that a sound total quantity management system consisted of four measures in terms of procedure: total quantity development, total quantity distribution, total quantity allocation and total quantity control. By means of controlling effectively the pollutants released by human society and the demand and supply of natural ecosystem resources, it was suggested by the study that the only means to solve environmental issues at present stage was to strike a balance between demand and supply, namely between humans and the sustainability of natural ecosystem. Establishing a sound total quantity management system would be a more effective way to improve the efficiency and benefits of comprehensive development in terms of national development.