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    题名: 化學品相容性自動警報系統之研發—以實驗室廢液為例;The Development of a Chemical Incompatibility Warning System for Wastewater of Laboratory
    作者: 吳宏泰;Hong-Tai Wu
    贡献者: 環境工程研究所
    关键词: 化學不相容性;無線通訊;預警系統;廢液管理;化學品儲存;chemical incompatibility;warning system;wireless communication;chemical storage;wastewater management
    日期: 2007-10-20
    上传时间: 2009-09-21 12:18:05 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 化學品相容與否的判斷對化學品的儲存安全具有重大的意義。傳統上管理人員必須透過圖表、文字、符號或輔助軟體進行相容性判斷,當人員訓練不足或是疏忽時不相容之化學品就有可能被放置在同一地點而造成潛在之風險。有鑒於此,本研究希望以無線通訊技術為基礎,發展一套化學品相容性之辨識技術與電子警示系統。 此系統所設計的每一個通訊感測單元(CSU)均可主動偵測一定範圍內是否存在與其不相容的通訊感測單元,並且觸發自身的警報機制,提醒管理人員。當此系統被安置於化學品廢液儲存桶時,即可成為廢液相容性與否的偵測與警報裝置。 本研究設計的無線通訊協定及編碼原則的特色包括:CSU能於任一時間隨意加入或離開通訊族群(CSU Groups);CSU通訊時以無主從關係方式自我組織(non-master-and-slave communication protocol),並由預設的相容屬性決定通訊時序;系統以邏輯運算方式檢查相容性而非使用查表運算,以減少運算時間及所需的記憶體。 本研究已成功的使用NODIC nRF24E1通訊晶片為核心,製作出67mm×64mm的無線警報裝置。電力來源為兩顆1.5v之三號電池,並具有蜂鳴器及LED做為警報單元,整體重量約為100g。經過實驗室的性能測試結果顯示:在1000次的模擬測試下,以9個CSUs所組成的CSU group可在4.85±4秒內與周圍的CSU完成至少一次的通訊檢查,檢查錯誤率為0%。耗電量測試結果顯示CSU在通訊時之耗電量為27.5mA而在休眠時可降至0.01mA以下,當2000mA可充電之Ni-MH電池,在1%的通訊密度下,預計可使用200天。相容性警報測試結果顯示在10000次模擬不相容狀態時,此系統均可正確的以聲響及燈光發出警示,顯示本系統能有效的警告管理員,提升廢棄物管理流程中的安全性。 Storing incompatible chemicals can results in great risk. Therefore, determining chemical compatibilities is very important in chemical storage. Traditionally, managers use charts, labels, or simply, texts to do that. But when not enough training or careless occurs, incompatible chemicals can be put together and cause potential risk to accidents. Therefore, developing a system that can automatically identify chemical’s compatibilities is very important. And this research is dedicated to use wireless communication technology to achieve that goal. Basically, the system uses a communication sensing unit (CSU) to talk to other CSU(s) in the same communication fields. If other CSU(s) do exist nearby and is incompatible to it, an audio alarm will be triggered to notice the manager. In this study, we have developed the WAU protocol for the CSU and it has three features. First, the CSU could join or leave the CSU communication groups (CSU Groups) in any time. Second, the CSU could organize themselves by the no-master-and-no-slave communication protocol, and setting communication timeslot by predefined timeframes which is associated with the incompatibility table. This research successful developed the CSU with the size of 67mm * 64mm by using NORDIC nRF24E1 as the radio transceiver. The CSU uses two 1.5v AA batteries to drive buzzer, LED and the radio. And it weights about 100g.Under a thousand simulations in the laboratory, a CSU could communicate with other eight CSUs at least one time in 4.85±4 seconds, and no error has been found this test. Power consumption tests showed that the CSU used 27.5 mA during communication and consumed less than 0.01 mA in power down mode. This means that the CSU can be used continuously for about 200 days at 1% communication density if two 2000mA Ni-MH batteries are used. And it is long enough for many waste chemical storage conditions in campus.
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