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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/3737


    Title: 溶劑與陰離子(Y)之結構對一典型相轉移催化親核取代反應BzCl + Bu4NY→BzY + Bu4NCl之反應性之效應;The solvent effects and the structural effects of anions(Y) on the reactivity of the nucleophilic substitution reaction BzCl + Bu4NY→BzBr + Bu4NCl.
    Authors: 朱宏彬;Hon-Bein Chu
    Contributors: 化學工程與材料工程研究所
    Keywords: 親核取代動力學;親核取代平衡;四丁基銨鹽;相轉移催化劑;Phase transfer catalysis;nucleophilic substitution kinetics;nucleophilic substitution equilibrium;quaternary ammonium salts
    Date: 2002-06-27
    Issue Date: 2009-09-21 12:21:22 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 本研究探討溶劑效應(包含水分的影響)與陰離子結構效應對一典型液-液相轉移催化反應BzCl + Bu4NY→BzY + Bu4NCl(Y = OH, Br, I, AcO, HSO4, ClO4)之影響。   溶劑效應方面 : 選擇脂肪族非質子(aprotic aliphatic)混合溶劑: propionitrile + heptane; 及芳香族非質子(aprotic aromatic)混合溶劑: benzene + nitrobenzene,以莫耳比BzCl : Bu4NBr : solvent = 1 : 0.03 : 30,反應溫度40 0C,以體積平均溶解度參數 (volume average solubility parameter)來探討溶劑效應。由實驗之結果發現,lnkf、lnkb與 呈一正比之線性關係,且溶劑效應對反應之相對速率影響不大,其大小差異僅10倍﹔而由不同的水量對芳香族非質子溶劑 : 苯、脂肪族非質子溶劑 : 丙烯月青,以莫耳比BzCl : Bu4NBr : solvent = 1 : 0.03 : 30,反應溫度40 0C,所得結果發現水分對芳香族非質子溶劑、脂肪族非質子溶劑之影響相差不大。   陰離子結構方面 : 以不同陰離子(Y = OH, Br, I, AcO, HSO4, ClO4)結構之四丁基銨鹽,當Y≠OH時莫耳比BzCl : Bu4NY : CHCl3(solvent) = 1 : 0.03 : 30,當Y = OH時莫耳比BzY : Bu4NCl : CHCl3(solvent) = 1 : 0.03 : 30,反應溫度40C,探討陰離子結構對反應速率之影響。由實驗結果發現,由於離子半徑大小之差異及溶劑對陰離子之媒合作用影響,使得反應速率大小相差可達1000倍,對於平衡常數的影響甚至可達1000000倍,即對陰離子交換反應而言,陰離子結構效應之影響遠大於溶劑效應。 The reactivities (kf,kb) depend on the structures of the nucleophiles (Bu4NY), the solvent used. For the structural effects of Bu4NY, Y = Cl, Br, I, AcO, OH, ClO4, HSO4 were studied. And for the solvent effect, the relations between the reactivity and solvent properties (solubility parameter) has found for the various types of solvents (aprotic aliphatics, aprotic aromatics). And the effect of water on kf and kb were studies as well.
    Appears in Collections:[化學工程與材料工程研究所] 博碩士論文

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