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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4164

    Title: 僧傳裏的善女人 ──以釋寶唱《比丘尼傳》為中心
    Authors: 謝素文;Su-Wen Hsieh
    Contributors: 中國文學系碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 典範;傳記;比丘尼傳;修身;性別文化;moral culture practice;paragon;biography;Pi-ch’iu-ni chuan;gender civilization
    Date: 2007-06-25
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:13:16 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 佛教東傳為中國婦女帶來思想與生活型態的衝擊,女性集體出家可視為一種社會現象。藉由目前唯一入藏,記錄著早期女性出家眾的尼傳──梁釋寶唱《比丘尼傳》為中心,以比較觀點的研究方法於既有的文獻考證、尼史的研究基礎上,對於中國史書「以史為鑑」、以明「教化」的傳統,先以劉向《列女傳》為對照,分析儒佛「女性」觀的對辯與合流。再與原始佛教經典《長老尼偈》探討:中、印不同社會文化下入傳尼師的出家因緣。其次,從出自沙門律師修史的佛史傳統於文本形塑的聖尼形象和「以戒為師」的修行重點,觀看中土婦女由儒家進入佛門後,在社會與宗教不同身份的「才德觀」。同時,傳統性別文化的視野下,性別上的「尊卑」可因身份與地位而改變,而傳記書寫則以佛法眾生平等精神為基本,強調「人」的自覺優先於對「性別」的關注,並營造屬於宗教信仰的世界圖象、生活世界與具美感的淨土想像。最後則以「權力/身體」的理論,將「身體」視為有機的載體,從傳統以「禮」為倫常尊卑標準的道德身體或後世以國土為「身體」的隱喻,深化「貞潔」為女體的神聖性。佛教經典中女身等同於情慾,為男僧、女尼共同凝視的客體;然而心靈「修行」的成就所呈現出的「理想身體」是如同佛陀莊嚴的男性聖體想像。於是「男淨女垢」的宗教身體,遂也隱含「去女性化」、「男尊女卑」的性別預設立場。在由男性主筆的傳本中,尼師抱持「厭惡此身」力行齋戒、素食、苦行的修行,在戒除「不淨」的同時成就「貞定」聖體。是故藉由「修身」,俗家女子得以進入到神聖的形式而為佛教史傳中的典範。 Pi-ch’iu-ni chuan, written by Shih Pao-ch’ang in the Liang Dynasty, is a precious historical record related to Chinese Buddhist nuns in the early periods and the only collection of Buddhism “大正藏” for the time being. This biography helps people to realize the beginning, development and life pattern of Chinese Buddhist nuns more concretely. Nowadays, studies on Buddhist nuns are focused on the viewpoint towards female in a religion, while studies on Buddhist nuns’ biography were focused on Buddhist nuns’ history. However, how do traditional Chinese females can be superior to saint position and be put down in Buddhism sage records under the concept of “Men esteemed women humble”? This thesis is an observation, from a feminine-focus perspective, about the impact, effect and image of what the Buddhism as an external belief and life style has made on traditional Chinese females. Refer to the research category, the comparative and analysis method was adopted in this thesis, dividing into five parts: 1. Compared with “Lives of Illustrios Women” written by Liu Hsiang in the Han Dynasty, discussing the similarities and dissimilarities of viewpoints towards female between the Confucianism and Buddhism. 2. Compared with the Buddhist scripture “Theigatha”, analyzing the motives of females decide to be Buddhist nuns under different cultures of China and India. 3. The characteristic and image of nuns were in the biography. 4. The tactic of the biography was written. 5. Making use of the Foucault’s idea of power to discuss the “Body” and “Buddhist practice” in the metaphor of the viewpoints towards gender of Buddhism. How much does it change in the social position for females once they devoted themselves to religion? As a matter of fact, the roles the females play of and sexual relationships are essential parts in history developing process. Rather than females’ lives themselves, what editors concern about is that people, males in particular, are encouraged to do what is right influenced by good deeds of the females have done. There is no exception for Buddhist nuns, the identification with religious discipline and complete sincerity are the reasons why those Buddhist nuns could be put down in Pi-ch’iu-ni chuan. The representation on character is the rigid confidence of the moral virtue, also the representation on behavior is the widespread of Buddhism’s career and the influence of the politics society. Pi-ch’iu-ni, as a religious, is able to endow the female social position from a humble one to a superior level and good reputation. Under the concept of “Men clean women dirty” in the religion, feminine body is equivalent to sexual desire. Therefore, “Body” becomes the field for Buddhist practice, it helps people to picture the image of holy nuns by means of practicing moral culture and obeying religious discipline.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學系碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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