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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4174


    Title: 中國文學中的食人;Cannibalism in Chinese Literature
    Authors: 劉淑萍;SHU-PING LIU
    Contributors: 中國文學系碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 消化系統的文化結構;食人;符號學;轉化;隱喻;象徵;寓言;文化語言學;文化人類學;Cannibalism;Metaphorical;Symbolization;Cultural anthropology;Allegorical;Linguistic Transformation;Digestive system culture structure;Cultural linguistics
    Date: 2006-05-24
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:13:31 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 摘要 本論文主要是探討中國古典與現代文學中的食人事例之意象、寓意、時代背景、及多面向的人性。莎士比亞曾說:「食慾是一隻無所不在的狼」(Appetite, a universal wolf.),狼是雜食性動物,無所不吃,即使是體積比自己大許多倍的動物也不怕,狼是凶狠的,而食慾亦是凶狠的,而人絕不遜於狼,因為人會吃同類的--人,為了食慾、權謀、報復、求生等等諸多理由,人類就有理由合理化吃人的行為。 世界歷史,其實就是誰吃和誰被吃的紀錄。而中國文學作品中的「吃人隱喻」亦有自己的發展脈絡,本論文欲藉由中國文學中的「吃人」,看出人物的性格、社會背景及背後所隱含的意象,甚或是殺機。 由於這類的文學作品的體裁及內容相當龐雜,本篇論文主要將重心放在小說上,以其他文體為輔。 本論文共分八章。 第一章:緒論,乃食人在中國文學歷史上的通論,及中國民族對於食人之態度、想法、及習慣。 第二章乃探討食療觀念將食人合理化,如整本都在探討食用唐僧肉之概念的《西遊記》及長久以來受人讚揚的割股療親,還有《本草綱目》之人部、佛經(如:《賢愚經》等)中之獻身肉以救父母等之食療觀念,以及為製醒酒湯而食人的強盜頭子馬武。 第三章討論的是飢餓性食人,由於飢餓所產生的食人現象,分為:戰爭--人禍性食人、天災性食人、類解剖學食人、嗜吃性食人、瘋癲性食人五類。大眾皆以為食人只發生在天災無食物可吃時,孰知在人禍下的大規模食人才更可怕。而類解剖學食人談的是暴力美學的食人描寫,以類似解剖學手法呈現。嗜吃性食人也是飢餓的一種表現,認為人肉是一種美味,成為了一種嗜吃人肉行為。瘋癲性食人是一種在精神呈現不正常的情況下將吃食人肉視為尋常之事,而且還吃得津津有味,這是一種變態、執拗又拿他無可奈何的瘋癲,所呈現的是人性的泯滅及扭曲之顯現。 第四章探究殘暴性食人,共分為四類:報復性食人、威脅性食人、警示性食人、示忠誠性食人。這些即是因仇很而將敵人殺戮並吃食、或只想表示自己是凶狠的人物而威脅嚇唬大眾的食人肉、或是警示寓言般的極其聳動之食人故事及淪入地獄之自食其肉的懲罰、及為了表示對君王或掌權者之忠誠而被迫吃人之事。 第五章隱喻性食人,主要分為兩類:消化系統的文化結構食人、以教育為目的的隱喻及象徵性食人兩類。第一類是以消化系統的文化結構食人來喻腐敗的官僚體系故事、另一種是以隱喻及象徵性食人故事來教育小孩子。 第六章是食人的文化人類學意涵,用人類學家馬文哈里斯的理論及李維斯陀《生食與熟食》理念來探討喪葬層面的食人,及食人族於戰爭下所產生的食人行為和心態。 第七章是吃人的轉化及文化語言學,主要是探討文學中將吃人轉化成文化語言學及日常生活中的概念,這不是真實的食人,卻已成為一種暴力式語言及恐嚇之行為。本章分為:飲食背後的創傷、物化女性身體成為食物、食人與文化語言學三類。 第八章乃結論,歸結上述之篇章,歸納人性、態度、及現代食人意義,並期許世上別再發生如此慘無人道之事,宇內真的承平。 Summary The thesis examines the imagines, meaning, context, and phenomenon of cannibalism in Chinese traditional and modern literature. Shakespeare (1564-1616) said : ”Appetite, a universal wolf.” Wolves are omnivorous, eating anything and everything, including their own, with no fear of other, larger animals. Wolves are ferocious, as is their appetite. Humans, never inferior to wolves, are known to eat other humans for reasons of power, revenge, or simple survival. World history has a long record of humans’ eating and being eaten. The cannibal metaphor in Chinese literature has its own developing track. This thesis tries to highlight characters, describe the societal background, illuminate hidden phenomena, and explain the killing motive by researching cannibalism in Chinese literature. The primary focus has been on novels, with secondary examinations of poetry as well as historical compilations. Eight chapters are presented: I. Introduction. A general survey of the cannibal attitude, thought, and customs in Chinese culture. II. Medical explanations for cannibalistic behavior. III. Eating people to satisfy hunger. Five different situations are examined, including war, natural disaster, anatomical examination, cannibal gormandize, and lunacy. IV. Savage cannibalism. There are four topics: revenge, establishing a credible threat, as a future warning, and to show faith to leaders. V. Metaphorical cannibalism. There are two types: parables of bureaucrats, and symbolized cannibal stories for educating kids. VI. Cultural anthropology cannibalism. The literature of eating dead relatives and the attitude and behaviors of cannibalistic act. VII. Applications of Cultural Linguistics in cannibalism. How language has been transformed and threatened. VIII. Conclusion.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學系碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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