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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4201


    Title: 以《明夷待訪錄.學校》為例——兼論知識與權力間的關係;Take "Chapter School of Min-i Tai-fang Lu"for Example
    Authors: 黃凱淋;Kai-Ling Huang
    Contributors: 中國文學系碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 黃宗羲;明夷待訪錄;學校;知識;權力;Huang Tsung-hsi;the spirit of scholars;school education;and the education at the end of the Ming Dynasty
    Date: 2009-06-23
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:14:04 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 黃宗羲身處在天崩地裂的時代,秉持知識份子對所處世代有著責無旁貸的使命及有其應盡之責任的驅使下,雖是遺民身分的他爲了保存民族文化,在面對出與處的兩難,選擇了以積極講學、大量著書的方式,努力的爲當時的知識份子在明末清初那樣紛亂不安的時代下,試圖找到應有的人生定位。熟讀經史的他,鑑往知來,總結歷史的教訓,也因深感於明朝的覆亡,他寫下了《明夷待訪錄》一書,盼能在變動之際重塑士人的品格,也希冀通過士人們發揮知識的力量,在任官握權之際,秉持著「經世致用」的態度,讓整個國家社會都能過得更加的美好。所以,他將自己的政治理念訴諸於《明夷待訪錄》之際,主張以民為主外,還論及君王、宰相的職分,法制、田制、財政以及軍事方面等的問題,還特別獨立談到在國家政體運作之下,還應該有著與國家政權平行且能與之制衡的機構——「學校」的存在。因為唯有倚賴「學校」這個學術機構,培育出「經世致用」之才,以供國家策用外,更要使其發揮教化的力量,讓全民都能具有一定的知識水準,如此,一方面可破除百姓們因無知迷信而過度奢靡,另一方面也可以讓手握政權者有所忌憚,而不會讓本應為民服務的權力因個人私欲卻起了變化。當然,黃宗羲對「學校」的企盼不僅於此,更重要的是「學校」這個學術機構,還應是一個能與政統互相抗衡的行政單位,或更可說是一個能以學術(知識)的真及淵博,來引領政統舉措的行政單位。 In an unstable era, with an unshakable mission driven by literati’s obligation and responsibility, Huang Tsung-hsi encountered a dilemma of being a government servant or isolating himself from the society. Although as a descendant, he chose to lecture and write a great quantity of books, in order to conserve the ethnic culture. Huang tried to make an effort to search his goal of life in a confusing time. After reading thoroughly the texts and history, realizing the past and the future, and summarizing the history lessons, Huang felt deeply the decline of Ming Dynasty. Therefore, he wrote “the Min-i Tai-fang Lu”, hoping to remold the characters and develop the power of knowledge by the contemporary scholars in a changeable time.In the time of having the innings, Huang held the attitude of helping the world and developing his specialty in order to let the whole nation and society become better and better. Therefore, Huang put his ideas into “the Min-i Tai-fang Lu”, and he also focused on democracy. Meanwhile, he discussed the relationship of the monarch and chancellors, and the issues of laws, farmland system, financial system, and military affairs. Especially, he talked about the manipulation of a nation. “School”, an organization should exist to parallel itself with the power of the government. Only if we rely on the organization, “School”, we can cultivate people who help the world and develop their specialty. “School” will develop its power of education to let the mass have some certain standard and level of knowledge. Thus, on one hand, we can get rid of excessive extravagance caused by innocent superstition.On the other hand, it can make the government pay much attention to the people’s needs and serve the people instead of corruption because of excessive desire of power by the government. Absolutely, Huang Tsung-hsi’s value and hope for “School” was not constricted but broad. It played a role as an administrative organization not only to parallel itself with the government, but also to provide the government with some important guidance.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學系碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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