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    題名: 克理楊作品中騎士精神與愛情關係之探討;Reconciliation entre l'Amour et la Chevalerie chez Chretien de Troyes
    作者: 韓維民;Weimin Han
    貢獻者: 法國語文學系
    關鍵詞: 婚姻;克理楊;騎士精神;愛情;chevalerie;amour;mariage;Chré;tien de Troyes
    日期: 2009-07-13
    上傳時間: 2009-09-22 09:16:00 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 本文試圖將克理楊(Chrétien de Troyes)的愛情、婚姻觀與十二世紀的愛情、婚姻觀,做對比分析。十二世紀的文學,主要描寫騎士如何以勇猛的格鬥技能,贏得他所心儀女人的芳心。唯有勇猛的騎士,才有資格享有愛情。然而這愛情不為日後婚姻的基礎。戀愛的雙方不限於單身,而且經常是已婚之貴婦與年輕騎士雙方的「外遇。」所以在十二世紀詩人筆下的愛情,幾近今天的外遇。因為在當時,婚姻並不為男女雙方自由戀愛的結果;婚姻,充其量只是貴族之間政治、經濟利益交換的基礎,其目的在於獲得男嗣,以延續家族產業。對於克理楊而言,他提出一個與當時婚姻觀不同的概念,在他作品中,將愛情融入婚姻。 愛情雖為婚姻的主要構成要素,但是維持婚姻不單只靠愛情。婚姻必須靠騎士與他的妻子兩者之間的共同認知。若此二者,無此認知,危機即生。這認知在於騎士丈夫不能在婚後一味追個人的競技榮耀,但也不可因沈溺於愛情,而荒廢格鬥技能。另一方面,妻子必須理解,她的騎士丈夫需保有格鬥技能。外出格鬥為騎士維護名聲之所需(以Yvain為例)。妻子需成全騎士丈夫的封建名聲,更不可對此有所疑慮(以Enide為例)。格鬥技能不僅是騎士個人的成就,它更是封建社會的階級標準。喪失格鬥技能(以Erec為例),則不見容於騎士精神,必遭同儕的排斥,冒失去騎士資格的風險。 解決婚姻的危機須在格鬥技能與愛情之間,取得平衡與和諧。 於此,格鬥技能與愛情的重要性,幾近平等。此平等性,並非全然概念式的論述,而是在克理楊(Chrétien de Troyes)的小說中,經由實際人物(騎士丈夫與妻子)喜怒哀樂的呈現。克理楊(Chrétien de Troyes)的成就在於,愛情與婚姻不再是詩人咬文嚼字的遊戲,而是實在人生的實景表現。 The novelty of Chrétien de Troyes’ concept of love, chivalry and marriage is the mélange of the three, which is proven unprecedented before his time. I compare the contemporary notion of love, chivalry and marriage with that of Chrétien de Troyes. In chapter one, the concept of love is well presented, especially the important term la fin’amors. In the second chapter, I compare the new chivalric idea of Chrétien de Troyes with his contemporaries. For the author, chivalry is meant to help those in need and restrain brutality by granting mercy to the defeated. In the third chapter, the new notion of marriage based on love is introduced. For the nobility, love and marriage are like two water-proof compartments. Love is won by the victory of a knight in tournaments. Bravery is thus the key to the lock in a woman’s heart. Nevertheless, love does not pave the way to marriage. The love that a brave knight conquers only exists outside marriage. For a knight, love is a game to seduce other women, married or not, than his own wife. Love is always sexual and thus adulterous, if we apply our own moral standard to it. There are quite a few noble women for a young knight to suit in tournaments. Marriage, barely based on love or the mutual consent of the married couple, is traded among the aristocrats for the exchanges of political and economical interest. The author proposes a new perspective not only to reinstitute marriage but also maintain it harmoniously between husband and wife, when crisis occurs out of the imbalance between chivalry and love. In order to make marriage work, both parties involved must realize that too much chivalric valor in marriage will dwarf the growth of love (see in the case of Yvain and Laudine), which is the very basis of marriage, whereas if any knight indulges himself in love and ignore his chivalric duties, his name will be tainted with laxity of bravery (see in the case of Erec and Enide), which is nothing more than the abandonment by the chivalric circle. As wives, Laudine and Enide must learn to recognize the chivalric valor of their husband and the necessity to maintain by participating in tournaments. Neither chivalry nor love can be single-handedly dominant in marriage. Husband and wife are equally important and thus responsible of making or not making marriage work. This is the new notion of the twelfth century marriage, which may serve as role model for today’s marriage.
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