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    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4294


    題名: 沙特《詞語》裡的無神論探析;Atheismes dans Les Mots de Jean-Paul Sartre
    作者: 陳時泰;Shih-Tai CHEN
    貢獻者: 法國語文學系
    關鍵詞: 詞語;自傳研究;文學本體論;無神論;沙特;ontology of literature;Sartre;Les Mots;atheism;autobiography
    日期: 2009-06-22
    上傳時間: 2009-09-22 09:16:02 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 本文以沙特「無神論」為中心,探討《詞語》(Les Mots)裡宗教與文學兩主題間,相生相依的關係。沙特在書中指出:其兩戰前的文學神經症(névrose littéraire)源自童年的讀寫活動。若將文學類比為宗教,作家如同教士,志在完成自我之救贖與救世。《詞語》是一場作者向純文學告別的儀式,旨在釐清文學在社會運動中所扮演之角色與侷限。本文由宗教與文學兩子題開展,分兩部分。   第一部份分析童年至成年的無神論演變歷程。第一章以《詞語》和《噁心》為討論基礎。沙特幼年唯心無神論(athéisme idéaliste),不但可視為社會與家庭媒介作用下的異化結果,也是孩童面對生活處境而產生的存在焦慮。第二章處理哲學家成年後,實踐唯物無神論(athéisme matérialiste)的自我理論化(l’auto-théorisation)過程。沙特在«存在與虛無»(L’Etre et le Néant) 裡使用的現象學本體論、存在主義式精神等方法已巧妙地嵌入《詞語》的敘事結構中,並藉由分析意識的結構:自在(l’en-soi)與自為(le pour-soi)結合之不可能性,否定了傳統神學上認為神(Dieu) 是自因的存在(ens causa sui)之論證。 第二部分處理沙特文學式的無神論。成年後沙特的宗教情懷未消失,仍專注於文學使命(vocation littéraire)。第三章從文學史的角度證明《詞語》裡關於文學的通俗看法(doxa),實際上來自十九世紀以降,文學作為自主場域生成的基本構件。接著,利用行動元模式(schéma actantiel)與Eliade的神聖時空,分析沙特的文學志向敘述(récit de vocation)。最後,討論藉由文學實踐來獲得救贖的可能。第四章以《什麼是文學?》(Qu’est-ce que la littérature ?)重新定義文學本體,試圖扭轉主流論述對沙特介入文學的負面評價。事實上,從《什麼是文學?》到《詞語》,沙特呼籲將文學從諸如布朗肖(Blanchot)之輩提倡之末世論的觀念中,拯救出來,並回歸現實世界,重新思索介入文學與純文學兩者實踐,並不互相衝突。最後,在釐清作家/寫家與知識份子分際的同時,筆者不忘強調沙特介入文學緣起,是以無神論作為一世界觀的實踐。 The purpose of the study is to investigate two aspects of Sartrean atheism: one is religious and the other literary. Since childrood, Sartre has considered literature as a representation of Religion, from which he could find not only salvation of himself but the world. If Les Mots is a farewell to literature, by means of questionning the genesis of his literary neurosis, Sartre intends to explain here the functions and the limits of literature as those applicated in his revolutionary enterprises. The first part presents the precocious genesis of Sartrean religious atheism and its auto-theorization. In the first chapter, with regard to Marxist analysis, we attribute Sartrean “idealistical atheism” to social and family mediations based on the diegesis of Les Mots and La Nausée. The infantile atheism could be then reflected as well to child’s existential anguish caused by his orphanhood and bourgeois solitude. The second chapter focuses on the theoretical explanation of Sartrean “materialist atheism”. In fact, Sartre adopts in L’être et le néant both ontological phenomenology and existential psychoanalysis to describe the conscience and human reality. These methods are also implied in the narrative of Les Mots. According to ontology, God is considered ens causa sui, a combination of the in-self and the for-self. For Sartre, human desire is to become God; however, it is contradictory for human beings to be actually synthesized into the two regions of conscience. Thus, the idealistic notion of God is impossible. The second part is concerned with Sartrean literary atheism, namely, his farewell to literature. In the third chapter, firstly, we analyze Les Mots’ literary topography in relation to its historical constitution of autonomic champ of literature. Secondly, we utilize the actantial schema and Eliade’s chronotope of sacred to scrutinize Sartre’s narrative of literary calling. Finally, his vocation must be involved in certain religious aims such as immortality and salvation. The forth chapter deals with Sartrean’s literary politics. Compared with historical farewell commented in Qu’est-ce que la literature?, the Sartrean one’s in Les Mots is precisely his Orphic gaze at literature, which differs from Blanchot’s eschatological perspective. Therefore, the writing of Les Mots is a deliberate full degree which contasts sharply with the terrorist writing degree zero triggered since the late nineteenth century. In the end, we discuss certain distinctive features of writer and intellectual and try to insist that Sartrean littérature engagée must be considered the cruel and lont-term business of atheism.
    顯示於類別:[法國語文研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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