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    题名: 建設公司全面品質管理. 產品定位與規劃績效關係之研究;The study of relationship between the total quality management, product position and planning performance in the real estate industries
    作者: 吳桂陽;Kuei-Yang Wu
    贡献者: 土木工程研究所
    关键词: 建設公司;全面品質管理;產品定位;規劃績效;real estate industry;total quality management
    日期: 2001-12-19
    上传时间: 2009-09-18 17:05:26 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 從建築生產的特性來看,專案產品定位、規劃與設計階段的品質,對材料採購、施工及行銷階段的成敗影響很大。因此若想在建築業中,脫穎而出,唯有強化公司的競爭力,推行全面性的組織再造,及增加員工的品質意識,亦即從制度及生產流程中逐步改善,以獲致成效。推行之初,需先透過產品定位,以了解購屋者的需求,使定位企劃能產生好的規劃成果,進而推出符合購屋者利益之產品,並使公司獲利因而成長。許多研究已提出,品質管理成效與組織績效之間具有正向關係,本研究乃以規劃作業之特性,探討經營型態、產品定位策略和品質管理間的關係,以供業界提昇規劃績效及後續研究之參考。 本研究以文獻探討、問卷調查,輔以專家訪談、統計與多變量分析,作為主要研究方法。在文獻探討方面,則蒐集國內外有關全面品質管理、產品定位及規劃相關之理論與實證研究資料,作為本研究建立研究架構之基礎。在問卷調查方面,以李克特總加法態度量表進行問卷設計,並訪問具實務經驗之高階管理者及學術研究者共十名,以評估本研究問卷之效度,再以經預試及項目分析修正後之問卷進行調查,整理後共收集了有效樣本116份,所得的量化資料以因素分析、卡方考驗、雙因子變異數分析及多元迴歸分析方法進行統計與多變量分析。 首先將國內建設公司依其垂直整合程度分為:基本型、複合型及一貫作業型,進一步以集群分析法,將公司對全面品質管理的推動程度分為:積極型、適中型及消極型三種型態;且依公司對產品定位策略運用之不同分為:積極開創型及漸進調整型兩種模式。接著將建設公司依以上特性分為群組分析,經比較歸納後,提出以下結論: 一、經卡方考驗,發現國內建設公司的垂直整合型態與全面品質管理型態、產品定位模式有相關性,積極型全面品質管理公司與積極開創型產品定位的公司,其垂直整合程度有趨向於一貫作業模式的趨勢,但在區域上卻有顯著不同,即南部地區之建設公司除了同業競爭劇烈外,加上有較多新的公共建設及新商圈,在產品定位模式上,比其他地區較趨向於採積極開創策略。此說明了面對未來多變的競爭環境,公司宜以積極的品質管理、產品定位策略及一貫作業之模式因應,此可以促進整體性且連續性的產品規劃與服務。 二、經因素分析後,國內建設公司重視之全面品質管理因素依序有:領導能力、人力資源管理、製程管理、供應商管理及連續改善與資訊;產品定位因素有:成本附加價值、目標顧客、安全管理及資源形象;規劃績效因素有:技術表現、產品利用率、效益符合度、使用者滿意度及管理維護。以上因素均經本研究建立可評量問卷,且經信度與效度檢驗,故可作為建設公司評量公司全面品質管理執行、產品定位策略擬定及規劃作業成果的參考依據。 三、建設公司的產品定位模式、全面品質管理因素及規劃績效因素相互之間有顯著的影響,其中最顯著者敘述於次: (一)在全面品質管理因素方面,「連續性改善與資訊」及「供應商管理」因素,為全面品質管理之核心概念,故對此兩因素之推動均表現積極,並不因區域之不同而有所分別;但北部地區建設公司對全面品質「人力資源管理」因素之推動,較其他地區為積極,而北部與中部地區的建設公司對全面品質「製程管理」因素之執行,較其他地區為優。換言之,區域因素會影響建設公司對全面品質管理各因素推動的優先順序,但面對國內外不確定及善變的環境下,經營者對不同地區公司間相互參訪及學習,以擬定切實可行推動全面品管的策略,應是值得採行的方向。 (二)在產品定位因素方面,各地區差異不大,僅南部地區建設公司較重視「目標顧客」因素。此可歸因於近年來南部地區有較多新的公共建設,促使公司對目標市場的重新界定,以掌握更多目標市場的機會。此說明了環境因素會影響產品定位中「目標顧客」的方向,而其他地區的建設公司,應可在既有市場內,去創造更多的目標市場,發展適當的產品,以創造基地的價值。 (三)在規劃績效因素方面,即在「技術表現」及「管理維護」兩個因素,為建設公司參與市場競爭的基礎能力,是以地區之間並無明顯差異;但在「使用者滿意度」、「效益符合度」兩因素上,一貫作業及複合作業型公司優於基本型公司。由此可了解到,在都市土地日益稀少,餘屋銷售處理日益嚴重等情況下,建設公司需更重視規劃成果與業主期望的符合度及思考如何將客戶之需求轉化成實體的產品,因此宜將公司調整至較能整合協調相關部門意見的複合作業型或一貫作業型,以符合未來之趨勢。 (四)產品定位模式與全面品質管理型態在規劃績效「技術表現」因素上有交互作用,且積極型全面品質管理配合積極開創型的產品定位,可有效提昇規劃之「技術表現」。換言之,各建設公司應持續積極加強全面品質管理活動及產品定位模式的配合。 (五)全面品質管理因素之「領導能力」及「供應廠商管理」因素與產品定位之「安全管理」因素對規劃績效影響最大,是以國內建設公司可優先提昇此三因素,以有效提昇專案之規劃績效 根據以上之分析結果,本研究提出下列建議,以供業界及後續相關研究之參考: 一、為促成建設公司全面品質管理系統的建立,宜以「領導能力」、「人力資源管理」、「製程管理」、「供應商管理」及「連續改善與資訊方面」五個因素,做為公司經營管理的評估指標。換言之,公司在措施上宜鼓勵全員參與、強調持續改善活動與資訊蒐集、要求製程標準、持續人力資源管理及訓練、強化與供應商的關係,藉以提昇規劃績效。 二、因各區域對不同指標因素之反應,部份有顯著性的差異,因此國內建設公司宜正視各經營區域所面對的市場與競爭,並借鏡其他分區成效優良的措施,來提昇公司的規劃品質。 三、建議後續研究可探討建設公司其他階段(如設計、施工或行銷階段)之績效衡量指標及影響品質管理實施成功的因素(如溝通、進度控制、設備支援因素),以發展一完整的評量體系,並與其他客觀可量化之指標(如投資報酬率、上市公司之財報)相互比較,以提供實務界及相關研究完整的參考依據。 With respect to the characteristics of the building construction, the qualities of the phases of position of project product, planning, and design are crucial to the successes of material purchase, construction and marketing. Therefore, in order to stand out and become first-rate in real estate industries, the objectives such as the enhancement of the company’s competitiveness, the implementation of total organization reengineering, and the improvement of quality awareness of employees must be reinforced. In other words, these goals must be improved gradually from the standpoint of both system and production process to achieve good results. At first, it is necessary to go through product position procedure in understanding the real demands from homebuyers’ point of view in order to have an excellent planning outcome. As a result, homebuyers will benefit from these products; in return, the real estate company will become profitable and continue its growth as well. Many of the researchers had proposed that the result of quality management is positively related with the organization performance. In this study, the characteristics of planning operation are discussed to find out the relationships between the business type, the product position strategy, and the quality management to improve the planning performance and to be established as a reference for future studies in this industry. The main methods used in this study are literature review, questionnaire investigation, expert interview, statistics, and multivariate analysis. In terms of the literature review, theories and empirical literatures from domestic and foreign countries relating to total quality management, product position, and product planning are collected and used as the groundwork for establishing the research frame in this study. In regard to questionnaire used in this survey, it was designed with Likert / summated scales first. Furthermore, 10 high-level managers that have practical experience and academic researchers are interviewed to evaluate the questionnaire validity of this study. Then the investigation is implemented again by using the questionnaires that have been modified by pretest and item analysis. Finally, there are 116 valid samples to be collected. The quantity data of these samples were analyzed to conduct statistic and multivariate analysis using methods such as factor analysis, chi-square test, two-way ANOVA and multiple regression analysis. First of all, operation modes based on their degree of vertical integration from domestic real estate industries can be classified into the following three types: basic, complex and sustained. By using the cluster analysis method, these companies are further categorized into the active type, common type and passive type according to their degree of implementation in the area of total quality management. In addition, they are also grouped into the innovation type and the progressive type in accordance with their different strategies for defining product position. Then, according to the characteristics mentioned above, they are divided into groups for further analysis. Finally, the following conclusions are reached after conducting comparative induction analysis on these groups: 1.After the chi-square test, it is found that there exists a correlated pattern between the degree of vertical integration, total quality management, and the product position for domestic real estate companies. For companies that implement active total quality management and innovative product position strategy, their degrees of vertical integration tend to move toward the sustained type. However, it can be seen obviously that there is a difference in terms of locations. That is, due to the facts that there are more newly-developed business circles and more public facilities to be constructed in the southern area with greater competitions among these building companies, the product position pattern for companies located in the southern part of Taiwan has a tendency to utilize a more aggressive and innovative strategy as compared with the companies located in other areas. It becomes clear that the real estate companies should adopt actively the strategies of total quality management, product position and sustained pattern to confront the highly changeable and competitive environment in the future. Therefore, the entirety and the continuity of the product planning and service of their companies will be promoted. 2.After the factor analysis, it is found that domestic real estate companies have focused the total quality management on factors such as leadership ability, human resource management, process management, suppliers’ management, continuous improvement and information management; whereas their focus on the product position factors are cost plus value, object clients, safe and management and image of resource. Moreover, their focusing factors on planning performance are technical representation, utilization of product, conformity of benefit, user’s satisfaction and availability of maintenance. These factors mentioned above have already been established by this study as the scaling questionnaires with their reliability and validity being examined to have passed the test; therefore, they can be used as the references to assess the degree of satisfaction in executing the total quality management, formulating the strategy of product position, and planning operation result for domestic companies. 3.As mentioned above, there is a significant and interactive influence between the product position pattern, the total quality management factors and the planning performance factors for real estate companies. Among these factors, the most significant ones are stated as follows: (1)In respect of the total quality management factors, continuous improvement and information management as well as suppliers’ management are two core concepts in terms of the total quality management. For this reason, both of these factors are carried out actively by nationwide real estate companies without showing much difference in different areas. Nevertheless, companies in the northern part of Taiwan implement the human resource management factor more aggressively than those in other areas. On the other hand, the real estate companies in the Northern and the Central parts of Taiwan execute the process management factor much better as compared with the other areas. In other words, the area factor will affect the priorities set by the companies in terms of the total quality management. However, due to the uncertain and ever-competitive environment, decision-makers should spend time to visit and exchange ideas with other companies located in different areas such that a practical strategy of promoting total quality management can be implemented in their companies. This is a direction of which it is worth the emphasis to be adopted for each company. (2)As for the product position factors, the difference resulting from area factor is not much. The only item that worth mentioning is that the companies in the Southern area emphasize more on factor of object clients. This is because there have been more newly-developed public constructions needed in the southern area recently, which makes companies redefine the object market in order to discover more opportunities. This explains why the direction of the object client in the product position will be influenced by the environmental factor. Furthermore, the real estate companies located in other areas should be able to create more object market and develop proper product within the accessible market to generate the base value. (3)As to the planning performance factors, the technical representation and the availability of maintenance are the two basic abilities for the real estate companies to participate in the competitive market; hence, there isn’t any significant difference with respect to the locations. As far as the user’s satisfaction and the conformity of benefit are concerned, companies of sustained type and complex type are better than those of basic type. This indicates that the real estate company should pay more attention to the planning result and meet consumers’ expectation; in addition, it needs to think hard how to convert the demands of clients into the practical products as a result of both lands being diminished continuously in the urban area and the serious situation of excessive empty houses. Therefore, the company should be reformed to become the complex type or the sustained type, which is capable of integrating and coordinating the comments from each related department in order to compete in the future market. (4)With regard to the technical representation factor of planning performance, the product position pattern and the total quality management type are interactively related to each other. In addition, active total quality management in conjunction with product position of innovative type will improve the performance of technical representation effectively. In other words, each of the real estate companies should actively and continuously promote the cooperation between the activities of the total quality management and the product position pattern. (5)The leadership ability of the total quality management and the suppliers’ management factor in addition to the safety management factor of product position have the greatest influence on planning performance. Therefore, the domestic real estate companies should firstly promote these three factors mentioned above to effectively improve the project’s planning performance. According to the results analyzed from above, there are several suggestions proposed by this study to be used in real estate industries as reference for further study: 1.To urge and materialize the establishment of the total quality management system for a real estate company, the following five factors: leadership ability, human resource management, process management, suppliers’ management, continuous improvement and information management should be employed as the assessment indicators for managing company. In other words, the company should take measures to encourage all employees participating in such quality assurance activities and to emphasize the importance of factors including continuous improvement, information collection, process standardization requirement, continuous human resource management and training, and enhancement of the relationships with the suppliers to enrich the planning performance. 2.Since there exists significant difference for some areas in response to reactions from various indicators, the domestic real estate companies should confront the market and the competition encountered in each area. Furthermore, the company should also refer to the effective measures implemented by other areas to improve company’s planning quality. 3.It is recommended that other phases (design phase, construction phase and the marketing phase) as well as factors affecting the success of quality management (communication, schedule control and equipment supply) can be used as topics to investigate a real estate company for further research to develop a complete evaluation system. Finally, these measurable components just mentioned above can be applied to compare with other objective and quantitative indicators (investment rate of return and finance report of listed firm) in order to provide a complete reference for companies and the related academic institutes.
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