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    题名: 李漁新論——遺民觀點的考察;Li-Yu from loyalists’ perspectives
    作者: 朱亮潔;Liang-Jie Chu
    贡献者: 中國文學研究所
    关键词: 李漁;隱逸思維;文學傳播;明清易代;遺民;Ming -Qing transition;Loyalist;Li-Yu;Literature broadcast
    日期: 2006-06-20
    上传时间: 2009-09-22 09:16:41 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 本論文以「李漁新論—遺民觀點的考察」為題。李漁為明末清初的文人,曾歷經甲申之變,甲申之變為明清易代的重大歷史事件,親身經歷此朝代更迭所受的心靈創傷,是一般人所難以想像的。面對此一世變的文人士大夫,內心往往充滿著國破家亡的哀痛、流離失所的悲愴,儘管事過境遷,仍在其文學作品中,或隱或顯地流露出故國之思與傷痛之情。本文以李漁歷經明清鼎革之變的生命經驗為背景,通過李漁戲曲、小說、詩文雜著等作品內容,探討李漁對於明清易代的感懷及省思。 論文共分為六章,各章重點概述如下:第一章先說明研究動機,並簡單地說明「遺民」之定義及特質,亦說明本論文希望透過李漁的個案研究,為遺民史的論述增添另一種遺民範例;有別於傳統針對遺民的高尚志節、政治操守的表現或鮮明易代興亡之感的展露,然而在李漁積極入世的姿態下,在其文學著作、生活品味中,其實有著隱性的遺民意識。本章並將研究範圍、及前賢研究及近年碩博士論文作一概述。 第二章是主要以李漁在經歷甲申之變後,描寫當時兵燹蔓延、親睹家破人亡的亂離詩,說明其創傷記憶的形成。並透過李漁之短篇小說作品:《無聲戲》、《十二樓》,其中所反映的鼎革創傷記憶,以及在小說中李漁如何隱微地在字裡行間寄託因世變而產生「遺民意識」作論述。 第三章則從李漁的《笠翁十種曲》作分析。首先說明當時在明清世變的刺激下,造成時事劇及歷史劇的盛行。《笠翁十種曲》中多以愛情婚姻為題材,向來被視為風流劇作,然而在其中卻也不乏具有歷史真實的作品,如《玉搔頭》概括了明代正德年間錯綜複雜的政治鬥爭。本章歸納出四個在《笠翁十種曲》中,揭露明代政治腐敗的原因,包括奸佞專權、民變與盜賊、將官的無能及科舉用人制度的不公,展現出李漁對於明清易代此一歷史世變的省思。 第四章則以李漁的治生方式作討論。李漁賣文維生的選擇和時代的動盪關係緊密,然李漁卻成功運用商業機制,使作品暢銷的文人。他掌握了當時的文學潮流以及大眾品味,也為自己的文學聲譽達到推廣效果。不過如此受人爭議的行徑下,在其出版的《尺牘初徵》、《古今史略》中,從他對於書信作者的選擇及明代殉難者的載錄,似乎透露他的易代感懷及對於明代忠臣之心的肯定。 第五章探討李漁與園林之間的關係。藉由他的造園理論,瞭解其營建園林的態度及美感巧心,究竟為何。並進一步探訪李漁在經歷甲申、乙酉之變後,由其詩文、小說,如何表現他的隱逸之心;以及他在三個園林中的生活,分別有著哪些不一樣的心情及主體意境。 第六章試圖從明遺民與李漁間的往來,及其對李漁的評價,重新檢視李漁的人品。並說明遺民的時間性現象,進一步提出李漁在鼎革的經歷下,實為一位具有畸人特質的文人。最後總結本文的論述,藉由其作品內容評析、歷史觀點、商業行為、園林生活,詮釋出李漁在明清的時空下,成為一位另類的明遺民之因。 This essay will focus its attention on Li-Yu from loyalists’ perspectives. Li-Yu was a scholar born in the late Ming dynasty. He went through a major historical event named Chia-Shen Chih- Pien. Actually, the psychological trauma left to those who suffered from the transition of dynasties was far beyond imagination. Thus, filled with sorrows out of the lost hometown, Li, consciously or unconsciously, displayed a pathos of nostalgia in his literary works. This essay will discuss how Li-Yu expressed his poignant feelings through his dramas, novels, poetry and other pieces of work. This essay will be divided into six chapters. The first chapter will explain why I was motivated to work on this topic, and I will also briefly characterize “Ming Loyalists” in this section. In fact, Li Yu exemplifies the Ming loyalists in response to the Ching dynasty as well. More often than not, loyalists are traditionally believed to show strong hermetic thoughts in the face of a new dynasty. They are morally transcendental and accompanied by an intense feeling of nostalgia toward the lost country. What distinguishes Li-Yu from other loyalists is his active involvement with the mundane world, yet, as a matter of fact, his work still reveals a sense of reclusiveness. This chapter will also cover several precedent dissertations concerning this topic. The second chapter will describe how Li-Yu got his trauma memory formed in the wake of Chia-Shen Chih- Pien. He witnessed how the war inflicted catastrophic effects on his hometown. Therefore, works like Wu-Sheng His and Twelve Towers dimly reflected his “trauma memory” and “loyalist’s consciousness” after he experienced the troubled age. The third chapter will analyze Li-Yu’s Li-Weng Shih-chung Ch’u. First, I will describe how the political turmoil fostered the popularization historical plays. Li-Weng Shih-chung Ch’u.often handled the theme of love and marriage; that was why it was often considered “gross”. However, Li skillfully blended some historical facts into his own work. The Jade Hairpin, for example, covered the complexity of political squabbles during Ming Cheng-te reign. The chapter will also discuss why the late Ming dynasty was so corrupt, at which evil eunuch usurped imperial power, bandits started to cause a disturbance, military became unable to fight battles, and the screening system for the talented became increasingly unfair. All of these factors made Li-Yu think critically and reflectively on the politics at that time. The fourth chapter aims to discuss how Li earned his money. The way Li Yu made his own living was intimately connected with the political climate then. He was so expert at marketing that his books were often best-sellers. His work not only went with the flow of the literary circles but also appeased the public’s taste. This way, he achieved success and then he took advantage of his fame as propaganda. Such action might be controversial, yet his published books like Ch'ih-tu ch'u-cheng and Ku-chin shih-lueh showed his recognition for the Ming loyalists and pathos for the lost dynasty, for in these books he carefully collected other writers’ works and reports of the martyrs. The fifth chapter explores the relationship between Li-Yu and yard forests. According to his yard-building theory, we can find his aesthetic attitude toward the yard. Later, I will also discuss how Li showed his hermetic thoughts in his poetry and novels in the wake of Chia-shen chih- pien. Besides, his different feelings and subjectivity while staying in the different three yard forest wills be discussed respectively later.
    显示于类别:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文


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