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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4334

    Title: 元雜劇中的宗教現象─從神聖走向世俗;The religion in Yuan Zaju─secularization of religion
    Authors: 楊玉鳳;Yu-Feng Yang
    Contributors: 中國文學研究所
    Keywords: 元雜劇;宗教;世俗化;Zaju;Yuan Dynasty;secularization of religion
    Date: 2006-06-07
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:16:51 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 摘 要 元朝是個對宗教甚為寬容的朝代,為了政治統治與社會控制的考量,元朝統治者對於宗教可以說是非常的禮遇(尤其是佛、道二教),因此,許多宗教都在元朝得到了廣大的發展。除了統治者的扶持外,元朝尖銳的社會現實也是造成各式宗教大行其道的主因。元朝初年雖呈現大一統的氣象,但漸漸的,吏治的混濁、權豪勢要的橫行、賦稅的沉重以及天災人禍的紛起都使得一般百姓痛苦不已。因著如此困苦的生活環境所致,人們的內心自然會變得脆弱而須要依靠,而宗教的功能之一便是給予人們在精神上的安慰。因此,廣大的元朝百姓們便借由對宗教的崇拜以及宗教儀式的舉行來獲得心靈上的平靜。國人的宗教意識本就有重功利、實用的一面,特別是對當時生活困苦的百姓而言,較之於對教義的理解,他們更重視的是現證的利益;比起長時間的修行,他們更希望能快速的解脫。這樣的宗教需求便是造成宗教世俗化的原因之一。為了迎合世俗的權力,神聖的宗教必須世俗化,同時為了在競爭中求生存,為了能吸引廣大的信眾,宗教也不得不向世俗社會妥協,並做出符合民眾需要的調整。 雜劇是元朝的代表文學之一,它不僅受到上層貴族的喜愛,更廣泛地在民間傳播著。雜劇作家多為不得志的文人,他們的社會地位不高,為了謀生,他們不得不混跡市井,以寫作雜劇為業。由於他們能深入民間,因此對於百姓們的生活自是較之從前的文人來得更深入了解,而他們所寫的雜劇自然也更能反映出下層百姓的生活與社會現實。透過了對元雜劇的解讀,我們不僅可以瞭解元代文學的發展,同時也能從中窺知元朝的社會現實、民間風俗以及宗教信仰,並借此以分析元朝宗教世俗化的表現以及造成宗教世俗化的成因。 Abstract In the Chinese history, Yuan Dynasty was a dynasty in which different religions thrived for its liberal attitude towards people’s spiritual beliefs. For the sake of political domination as well as social control, the ruler of Yuan Dynasty literally welcomed all kinds of religions, especially Buddhism and Taoism. This makes the dynasty become the golden age for many religions and their believers. Other than the support from the authority, the harsh social reality offered a perfect breeding ground for a variety of religious sects. Although the Mongol initiated a new age for the people, the follow-up chaos brought much pain for them. Civilians were suffered for the tense political situation, the powerful’s bullies, the over-loaded levies, not to mention the ever-arising disturbances out of natural or man-made causes. For the people who lived in such straitened circumstances, it’s only natural for them to seek emotional support. The religions thus came to their rescue. People turn to them and ask for a moment of relief. People chose to escape from the painful daily life, and found their shelter under the sacred life. The general population regains their peace by worshipping the deities and performing rites and ceremonies. Yet, the compatriots, especially those who lived in poverty, emphasized the utility and practical side of religious consciousness. In stead of learning the real essence of the religious context, they put more emphasis on the realistic sides. Rather than devoting themselves to the long-term asceticism, they sought for quick extrication. This is the reason why religious beliefs in that period of times, which should stay untainted and neutral, tended to be secularized in order to pamper the general public. Besides, in order to survive the competition and to attract believers, the religious communions had to compromise and make adjustments according to the crowd’s needs. Zaju, a unique literary form which combines drama with poetry and music, represents the literature of Yuan Dynasty. Not only was it popular in the upper classes but also widely prevalent among the lower class. The authors of Zaju are mostly unsuccessful writers and most of them belong to lower social status. They were forced to live in the base of the social hierarchy and wrote Zaju to make a living. Owing to their humble background, they could grasp people’s common lives better than their forefathers in the literary history. Their works reflected the lives of lower strata of society and Yuan’s social reality more precisely. From reading Zaju, we can not merely understand the development of literature in Yuan Dynasty, but also perceive the social reality, the contemporary custom, and the religious beliefs in those days. Furthermore, we can analyze how and why secularization of religion was formed in Yuan Dynasty.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of Chinese Literature] Electronic Thesis & Dissertation

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