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|Title: ||命與德：論《左傳》中的吉凶禍福;Destiny and Virtue：Discourse of auspice,inauspiciousness, calamity and happiness in Tso-chuan|
|Authors: ||簡瀅灧;Ying-Yen Chien|
|Keywords: ||左傳;命;德;禍福;Destiny;Virtue;Calamity and happiness;Tso-chuan|
|Issue Date: ||2009-09-22 09:17:47 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||從古至今，生命的安頓一向是人類關注的焦點，中國古代的經典也往往以生命為中心而展開記述。本論文正是基於對生命存在的關懷，重新閱讀、思索《左傳》一書對生命安頓的表現，透過對「命」與「德」觀的思考，論析《左傳》中的禍福事件，以此瞭解春秋時人對人生處境的反省思維，進而深究《左傳》所欲傳達的歷史意義。 本論文的主要內容分為四個部分：第一部分是從歷史時代的脈絡下去考察「命」觀的起源。在商人的觀念中，禍福掌握在「帝」的手中，因此能否獲得帝命神意的支持，便成為統治者擁有政權的關鍵因素；周人雖承襲商人此一想法，卻改以「天」指稱至上神，同時提出「德」的觀念，以此作為天命轉移的依據。第二部份旨在研究《左傳》中「德」觀的內涵與影響。透過考察「德」字的起源，指出「德」具有象徵政權的原始義，並在周初開始產生具有道德的意涵；進而從《左傳》對「德」的記載中，說明春秋時人將周初「德」的觀念延續與深化，開展出以禮為依歸的道德內涵，與強調道德規範的政治思想，顯示當時重德的思想概況。第三部分意在探討《左傳》中「命」的展現形式。由於《左傳》中禍福事件的預言是其「命」觀最直接的呈現方式，因此分別從天時星象、龜卜筮占、夢境徵兆、相人之術以及言行威儀五個面向進行論述，解讀徵兆與禍福之間的關係，進而從中挖掘出春秋時期的宗教信仰與人文精神的交錯情形。第四部分則是探究《左傳》中「命」與「德」的相互關聯。首先延續第三部分以徵兆預言「命」之禍福的觀點，接續討論人的德禮行為對徵兆的影響力；其次分別就「命」與「德」一致、無關、不一的三種關係，論述其中的禍福事件，藉此梳理出春秋時人不同的思想概念；最後解析春秋時人在這三種「命」、「德」關係的影響下，所引發出的處世態度與價值判斷。 透過這些禍福事件的論析，可知《左傳》客觀地載有「命由天定」、「命隨德定」與「命德鬆動」三種思想的禍福現象。然而在這些禍福事件的敘事中，卻隱含《左傳》主觀的思想意識，傳達敬天道而重人事的觀念，同時寄託懲惡而勸善的目的，呈現《左傳》一書透視人生現象、詮釋人生態度的歷史意義，及其獨特的精神面貌。 From ancient times to the present, human being has been paying close attention to life arrangement. Most Chinese classical literature started with the motif of life. On the basis of concerning about life, I re-peruse Tso-chuan to explore what it wants to say about life arrangement. Via considering the concept of virtue and destiny and analyzing the calamity and happiness incidents in Tso-chuan, I intend to interpret how people in Spring and Autumn Period collect their thoughts when facing different situations in life. Further, to probe the historical meaning that Tso-chuan conveys. The thesis contains four parts. In the first part, the origin of concepts of destiny will be inspected by the historical sequence. Ancient Chinese businessman thought that calamity and happiness were controlled by Divinity. One who supported by Divinity became the ruler. People in Zhou Dynasty followed this idea, but called the supreme deity ”sky” instead of “Divinity”, and brought out the concept of virtue on which the transfer of providence rested. The purpose of second part is to study the connotation and influence of “virtue”. By inspecting the origin of “virtue”, I found that the primal meaning of “virtue” signifies “political power” and the implication of moral was developed at the beginning of Zhou Dynasty. From the record of “virtue” in Tso-chuan, the people in Spring and Autumn Period continued and deepened the concept of virtue, launched the connotation of virtue in accordance with courtesy, and emphasized political consciousness which should be regulated by moral. It showed that people respect for virtue at that time generally. The third part of the thesis is to explore the form of Destiny emerged in Tso-chuan. Because the prediction of “calamity” or “happiness” incident is the direct presentation of “destiny” in Tso-chuan, I will expound in five directions: observing weather and horoscope, divining by means of the stalks of the milfoil and tortoise-shell, interpreting signs in dream, physiognomy reading and ones words and deeds to explain the relation between omen and “calamity” and “happiness” of destiny. Further, I will dig out the interlace situation between religious belief and humane spirit. The forth part is to discuss the interaction between “Destiny” and “Virtue” in Tso-chuan. Following by the viewpoint that the omen could be used to predict the “calamity” or “happiness” of “destiny”, first, I would like to study how human being’s moral and courtesy affect omen; secondly, to study the “calamity” or “happiness” incidents in Tso-chuan to figure out the relations between “Destiny” and “Virtue”-consistent, inconsistent or irrelevant, then to comb out the thought of people in Spring and Autumn Period; finally to explain the philosophy of life and values caused by three kinds of relation mentioned above. Via analyzing the incidents in Tso-chuan, it’s found that there are three thoughts describing “calamity” or “happiness” phenomenon: “Destiny decided by sky”, “Destiny decided by virtue” and “Destiny and virtue are irrelevant”. However, the pectoral idea of the incidents is to convey the concept of respecting nature law and making what is humanly possible, deliver the purpose of punishing evil and encouraging good and show out Tso-chuan’s typical idea and its historical meaning which is to see through life, interpret attitude toward human life.|
|Appears in Collections:||[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文|
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