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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4417

    Title: 從同情到自省-美國十九世級改革文學的轉變;From Sympathy to Introspection~ American Reform Fiction in the 19th Century
    Authors: 張藝鐘;I-Chung Chang
    Contributors: 英美語文學研究所
    Keywords: 社會改革;同情;人道主義;自省;Humanitarianism;Introspection;Social Reform;Sympathy
    Date: 2005-01-13
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:18:53 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 這一篇論文我試以文學作品的批評來對歷史上的社會改革運動做一次反思。長期以來我一直在思考文學對社會的實際功能,十九世紀的美國文作家們也的確常藉由作品表現對社會運動的支持或批判,正好呈現這樣的一種文學創作與社會改革關係緊密的風貌,因此我將以三位作者─史陀夫人、豪威爾斯與亨利詹姆士的小說做為範本來進一步地探討這個文學主題。 在引言的部分我將介紹這篇論文要闡述的歷史背景以及解釋我選擇這三位作家的原因,同時也要介紹他們彼此間對社會改革想法的差異及其對改革文學的深厚影響。 第一章我會對史陀夫人的短篇故事《哀悼面紗》及長篇小說《黑奴籲天錄》所表現的社會關懷做一次分析。史陀夫人以她女性特別的感性筆觸打動了讀者,進而使讀者們接受她反奴隸制度的主張。然而這種充滿人道精神的書寫卻更加深了階級與種族的分化,以致於使她的小說成為飽受爭議的作品,我將對這一點做深入的探索。 隨南北戰爭的結束之而起的是美國資本主義的興起,豪威爾斯卻在小說中批判了當時因社會經濟的擴張而被忽略的道德問題。在《富賈滄桑》與《安妮吉本》兩部作品中,豪威爾斯利用了主人翁在經濟與理想上的失敗來提醒讀者自我反省能力的必要性。相對於史陀夫人對社會改革運動的積極,豪威爾斯對改革運動採取較為保守的態度。我的第二章便要談及作家這樣的轉變為改革文學帶來的衝擊。 亨利詹姆士的《黛西米勒》與《卡薩瑪西瑪公主》沿襲了豪威爾斯的自省主張更進而強調缺乏自省的激烈改革可能會導致的悲劇結果。然而同時間詹姆士也體悟到改革的需要,否則社會制約的暴力與階級的不平等將永無掙脫之日。我的第三章會針對小說中主角的死去的結局進行剖析,並探究詹姆士利用小說中複雜的感情佈局來啟示社會改革的因果關係並且在結尾綜合這三位作家的風格做出結論。 Social reform is a crucial tool for idealists who wish to improve society. But this popular device sometimes does not succeed in achieving its anticipated goals. As a literature major, I have always been intrigued by the role of literature in various social reform movements. This was my motivation for selecting the thesis topic of American reform fiction. In particular I wanted to examine these authors’ technique of portraying societal reform from the intimate perspective of the individual, since the fictional account of the problems encountered and endured by these characters seemed to have great impact upon concurrent reform movements. Close text analysis is employed here on the fictions of three nineteenth-century North American authors—Harriet Beecher Stowe, William Dean Howells and Henry James. By comparing their works and the unique perspective of each, we will witness the evolution of reform literature’s transformational influence upon social reform. In the first chapter, I will focus on Harriet Beecher Stowe, whose anti-slavery stance defines her literary career. She utilizes the form of sentimental novel to agonize readers to the point that they will come to sympathize with the abolitionist point of view. Problems with the humanitarian ideas in her fictions are taken up in this chapter. Authors like William Dean Howells and Henry James, though not usually considered typical reform writers, critiqued the practice of social form in their fictions. In chapter two I will focus on the issues Howells cared about, particularly the quality of “introspection”, without which one lacks the strength and wisdom to face life’s problems. His characters face dilemmas in their lives which portray the conflicting situations individuals who are deficient in introspection can meet. Differing from Stowe’s active role in social reform, Howells gradually spotlights the primary necessity of examining one’s own life with honesty and vigilance Chapter three concludes with James’ novels, which further expand upon Howell’s conservativism, revealing how a lack of introspection at the individual level can even harm society. James exposes the complicated web of relationships in society and shows how one individual’s lack of self-reflection and integrity can tragically damage this web. This chapter reveals the great disparity in intent and technique among Stowe, Howells, and James. I hope this revisit to the reform culture in America through these three authors’ fictions can entice us to contemplate the place of literature in future reform plans.
    Appears in Collections:[英美語文研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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