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    题名: 為環境倫理學整體論辯護及其應用;In Defense for Holism of Environmental Ethics and its Application
    作者: 程進發;Chin-Fa Cheng
    贡献者: 哲學研究所
    关键词: 環境倫理學;整體論;實然與應然;自然價值論;大地倫理;永續發展;land ethic;environmental ethics;holism;Hume's law;sustainability
    日期: 2007-06-21
    上传时间: 2009-09-22 09:20:46 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 本文標明為環境倫理學整體論作辯護,是指環境倫理學的整體論遭受到強烈的質疑,它是一種「環境法西斯主義」的擁護者嗎?或甚至直接說它就是環境法西斯主義者,以及整體論者混淆了「實然」與「應然」兩者間的關係,或說它犯了倫理學上所謂自然主義的謬誤。這兩個問題可以說是環境倫理學整體論者的兩個弱點,這是本論文最初的問題。首先,何謂「環境倫理學整體論」?本文的研究範圍即歸聚在西方當代幾種不同的進路以及類型來說明。進行的步驟是先介紹幾種環境整體論,再從思維方法、人性、自然、變化等觀念,進行深層生態學與佛教環境倫理學兩者的對比,當突顯出兩者的不同之處,也看出佛教作為一種殊異的環境整體論的可能。   倫理學中「休謨法則」的議題,它指出:我們無法從事實之「實然」推斷得出道德上之「應然」。在環境倫理學整體論中,本文舉出柯倍德、羅斯頓與馬瑞塔等幾種不同類型,在面對環境倫理學中「實然」與「應然」之間的倫理學上的難題時,都從自身的環境倫理主張來釐清議題,而且根據不同的方法進路來解題,就在這個過程當中就可以看出他們的論據、思維方式以及作為一種整體論的倫理學特性。柯倍德是藉由「休謨-達爾文-利奧波德」這個模型來解決環境整體論的一個弱點。而羅斯頓不承認休謨法則的難題存在於環境倫理學之中,或者說他的自然價值論的主張並沒有從實然推論出應然的難題,那是因為他發現事實與價值是密不可分地共同進化的;自然中存在著諸多的價值,整個自然史的進化過程更明顯地揭示出:自然就是價值的承載者。羅斯頓自稱這種進路是一種「後生態學」,我們可以說它是自然價值理論的方法論,到後期著作仍是沿用此一方法。馬瑞塔對於環境倫理學中的實然與應然的議題,他的解決路徑和柯倍德與羅斯頓兩人的方法不同,他是從對意識的解析開始,採取現象學的進路,從意識的哲學分析來作為解決環境倫理學中實然與應然的難題。 環境倫理學整體論應用於企業與環境的永續發展議題,本文嘗試從一種環境整體論的觀點作為起點,說明企業應該如何去看待環境與經濟之間的關係,藉由當今已被肯認的理論,如「生態經濟」與「自然步調」等概念,企業經營者透過對自然環境的正確認識與依循自然步調的架構,再加上一種對環境責任的擔當,企業的獲利與環境和諧共存的永續是可能的。本文將這個脈絡整理出來,最後以世界第一家被稱為永續型的企業典範-英特飛公司作為例證。永續型的典範公司被實現,它代表了企業的環境意識的覺行圓滿,以及人的參與是一種圓滿的進化所不可或缺的力量。 Some ethicists contend that human have moral responsibility to non-human beings. While some position may be adequate as a criterion for a moral status, environmental holists emphasizing by the interplay among environment, human and non-humans. Could be the later make their case? What are the contents of environmental holism? This article studies what are the differences between Buddhism and Deep ecology as environmental holism. First, I would introduce three kinds of holism. Secondly, the views of Buddhism and deep ecology on environmental holism would be briefly introduced. I use four important concepts, namely, thinking method, human nature, nature, and change as the theme. In contrasting with deep ecology, we find a possible distinctive interpretation of environmental holism of Buddhism. The purposes which I will defense for environmental holism in the study are that, is environmental holist really an environmental fascism? and the Hume's law is constituted in environmental ethics, are environmental holists violate the Hume's law ? I will argue for three different theory of environmental holism. They are Holmes Rolston's theory of natural value, Callicott's land ethics and Marietta's critical holism. According to their special viewpoint , we will observe how can they resolve the problem, furthermore we notice the ethical characteristics of theirs. Lastly, I discuss an environmental holistic viewpoint on the practical sense of environment for business. Ethical issues produced on business development and environmental healthy, and which had been discussed in the topic of sustainability. Furthermore, ethical and living demand make them became global problems. Is it possible that business profit and harmony ecosystem coexistence sustainable? It is dealt and given a positive answer in this article. The contents are expounded more and more steadily fundamental theory. My strategy is that use natural capital for expressing our whole, rare and limited ecosphere, first. Secondly, We must choice the eco-economy for the only way into sustainability. Thirdly, the four system conditions of natural step provided the guideline for industrial practice can compatible with the earth system. Finally, A sustainable corporation: Interface Co., as an evolutionary corporation can be displayed and explained our original arduous problem. There is an important discover in the end that people have become integral agents of volution.
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