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    题名: 健康照護與基因干預:從丹尼爾斯到儒家;Health Care and Cenetic Interference:From Norman Daniels to Confucian
    作者: 周琬琳;Wan-ling Chou
    贡献者: 哲學研究所
    关键词: 儒家;基因干預;基因增強;基因治療;性份;殘疾;genetic interference;genetic enhancement;disabled;genetic therapy;hsing feng;Confucianism
    日期: 2007-06-28
    上传时间: 2009-09-22 09:21:25 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 隨著基因科技的發展,以基因干預的方式來治療疾病甚至提昇某些功能已經是指日可待的,然而伴隨著基因干預技術的成熟發展,衍生出來的倫理問題也必須加以評估考量,諸如基因治療、基因增強、基因隱私、複製人等,都強烈地衝擊我們以往對道德的要求和界定,特別是關於公義的範圍應包含哪些。本文所要處理的是關於基因治療和基因增強所衍生的倫理問題,主要是以儒家的觀點去探討基因治療與基因增強的公義問題。首先,儒家對於基因治療採贊成的態度,因為基因治療是以基因干預的方式去使疾病消除或修復,儒家認為透過人為的方式去彌補殘缺也是一種參贊天道的表現。此外,在儒家,公義要能夠使每個人都能盡其性份,性份包含兩種,一是指在道德上能夠發顯出道德心,另一是就每個人的才能而言,社會應該要使每個能都能充分發展他的才能。在這個意義底下,有殘缺的人相較於正常人而言,其才能是更不容易可以發揮的,因此,如果基因治療可以使殘疾的人恢復正常人,使其能夠充分發揮自己的才能,儒家沒有反對的理由。關於基因增強的部份,儒家原則上是不反對,但是也不是無條件的支持進行基因增強,它要在兩個前提之下才能進行增強:所進行之基因增強不能違反到其他人的公平均等機會;且,所進行之基因增強要能促進人類整體利益。第一個前提主要是為了避免更大的社會不公義的產生,第二個前提是要避免將一些負面價值的基因增強,會導致更多的社會問題。本文主要就儒家的觀點,探討基因治療與基因增強的公義根據何在?範圍為何? The rapid development of genetic technology brings to the front the ethical problems of the applications of genetic therapy and genetic enhancement. One of the pressing problems is genetic justice. In this paper, I shall approach the problem from a Confucian point of view. First, Confucianism will support genetic therapy as it is a kind of genetic interference for the curing of diseases or restoring of health. It is regarded as a participation of the nourishing process of Tao, that is, a moral obligation. For Confucian, justice is to let people to fully extend their natural endowment as a human being, the socalled hsing feng. Hsing feng encloses both the moral mission of human being as well as the talents one inherited. A just society should provide support for everyone so that she or he could manifest to the utmost their talents. A crippled person faces much more difficulties than the normal and his or her chance for self development is thus less than usual. Hence, if genetic therapy could raise their states back to normal, it is by all means approved by Confucians. As to genetic enhancement, I venture to argue that Confucianism will not object to it in principle, though its execution requires two restrictions. The kind of genetic enhancement to be deplored could not affect the fair equality of opportunity of others on the one hand, and it is supposed to be beneficent to human being as a whole. The first requirement is to avoid furthering social injustice and the second to avoid the negative effects of enhancement such as causing more social injustice. I shall espouse the ground for genetic therapy and enhancement and delimit its scope of application.
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