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    题名: 從道德運氣看道德責任與運氣均等主義;On Moral Responsibility and Moral Egalitarianism through Moral Luck
    作者: 張育銘;Yu-Min Chang
    贡献者: 哲學研究所
    关键词: 道德運氣;道德責任;平等;運氣均等主義;Moral Egalitarianism.;Moral Luck;Equality;Moral Responsibility
    日期: 2009-06-16
    上传时间: 2009-09-22 09:21:29 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 在常識性的觀點下,任何人都會認同,即使運氣似乎是無所不在,但似乎有一個領域是和運氣沒有關聯的,那就是道德領域。但這樣的觀點是否正確?運氣是否會在倫理學中產生影響呢?倫理學的討論中,道德運氣的議題是較晚近的討論。本篇論文試圖分析它的存在與否以及它對倫理學的影響。   本文分成三個部分,第一個部分討論道德運氣是否存在的論證。首先分析運氣的概念,再藉由Nagel對於道德運氣的概念分類和Nelkin的研究再做進一步的伸延。   第二個部分是討論道德運氣和道德判斷、道德責任的關聯性。從Williams討論道德證成開始,探討道德價值和證成模式的關聯性。在這之後,則探討道德運氣的存在會對責任概念產生什麼影響,進而去分析責任概念的必要條件,試圖去尋求一個合理的解釋。   最後是討論道德運氣和平等的議題,倘若在倫理學中真的存在道德運氣,那麼運氣均等的要求似乎是公平正義社會所應該關注的。藉著道德均等主義、優先主義和民主主義的討論,試圖證成運氣均等主義的重要性。 Everybody will agree that luck seems to be everywhere in common sense. But there seems to be an area where is irrelevant to luck, that’s the area of morality. But is this right? Is luck an affection in ethics? In the debates of ethics, the issue of moral luck is new one. This thesis tried to analyze that whether the moral luck exists or not and to analyze its affections in ethics. This thesis is divided into three parts. In the first part, I will discuss the argument whether moral luck exists or not. I will analyze the concept of luck. Then I will make some expansions through the classification of concepts in Nagel’s discussion in moral luck and the study of Nelkin. Secondly, I will discuss the relations between moral luck, moral judgment and moral responsibility. After this, through the existence of moral luck, I will discuss the influence of it to the issue of moral responsibility. I will also analyze the necessity of responsibility and try to give a reasonable explanation. Finally, I will discuss the issues between moral luck and equality. If there is moral luck in ethics, then we should pay attention to the claims of moral egalitarianism in a relatively fair and justice society. Through the discussions of moral egalitarianism, prioritarian and democratic equality, I try to justify the importance of moral egalitarianism.
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