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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4573


    Title: 辛格論醫助自殺;Singer on Physician assisted suicide
    Authors: 張馨文;Sing-Ving Chang
    Contributors: 哲學研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 生命神聖性;自律原則;利益的平等考量原則;偏好功利主義;自願主動安樂死;自然死;醫助自殺;自殺;滑坡論證;sanctity of life;principle of autonomy;physician assisted suicide;principle of equal consideration of interest;preference utilitarianism;voluntary active euthanasia;natural death;suicide;slippery slope argument
    Date: 2006-06-19
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:27:22 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 醫助自殺為生命倫理學裡的一個重要議題,而且是一個道德兩難的問題。若不解決之,其問題會一直持續存在,因此本文分析醫助自殺的道德性,並透過道德理據來解決醫助自殺所引發的道德問題。而由於辛格可說是生命倫理學的巨擘,對於生命倫理學裡的多數議題提出相當完善的論據,如對於殺生與自願安樂死的議題,即提出詳細且嚴謹的論據,且由其支持自願安樂死之論據可申論為支持醫助自殺之論據,因此本文以辛格之進路來論醫助自殺,以期為醫助自殺尋找一條道德上可以接受的出路。 辛格雖為一功利主義者,但他提出與古典功利主義不同的偏好功利主義,並認為偏好功利主義的論述優於古典功利主義,因此本文首先探討辛格之偏好功利主義,並分析偏好功利主義的理論效果。第三章探討辛格與傳統論自殺之論據,主要就五位具有代表性的學者所提出的關於自殺的論據進行道德分析,從神學代表聖湯瑪斯(St. Thomas Aquinas)、以人自身為目的論之康德(Immanuel Kant) 、功利主義代表休謨(David Hume)與辛格(Peter Singer) ,以及折衷派代表貝參(Tom L. Beauchamp)的論據中,發現每一位學者對於自殺皆有其一套的論據,但在仔細分析後,可得出結論是自殺並非絕對不道德。本文進一步分析醫助自殺的理據,主要是探討辛格論醫助自殺之觀點。除了從辛格支持自願安樂死之論據申論他對醫助自殺的證立,探討醫助自殺與自然死及自願主動安樂死的區別之外,本文分析為何醫助自殺是此三者中的最佳之道德選取。本文結以辛格對反醫助自殺論據之回應,主要在對持生命神聖性論據之卡亞斯(Leon R. Kass)、以人自身為目的論據之康德與認為政策合法化會產生滑坡問題的貝參等所提的論據做回應,從中可發現醫助自殺的目的在於讓病人可以從悲慘的處境中得到解脫,而非一不尊重生命或會損害醫病關係的不道德行為,是以本文建議以醫助自殺提供無法醫治且承受劇烈痛苦的病人多一個死亡方式的選擇。 Physician assisted suicide is an important bioethics issue and a thorny moral dilemma. This dissertation gives an analysis of the morality of physician assisted suicide and tries to identify the moral reason for the solution of the moral problems surrounding this issue. Peter Singer is one of the few bioethicist that offers sound arguments to most of the bioethical issues, such as killing and euthanasia. His arguments for euthanasia are meticulous and strong and such arguments could be extended to support physician assisted suicide. Thus, this dissertation takes Singer’s approach for the analysis of the issue, and, argues and seeks a morally acceptable outlet for physician assisted suicide. Though Singer is a utilitarian, he proposes a slightly different preference utilitarianism other than the classical one, and argues that his preference utilitarianism is an improvement over the classical. Thus I start first with an elucidation of his preference utilitarianism and give an analysis of the theoretical implications of his theory as a ground for the exploration of his ideas on physician assisted suicide. The dissertation turns next to the five classical philosophical stands of suicide, including St Thomas Aquinas as representing the traditional theological position, Kant as the point of view of man as an end, Hume and Singer as utilitarianism and Tom L. Beauchamp’s intermediate position. It is arguable that suicide is not absolutely immorally. The dissertation then delves into the central problem of physician assisted suicide, especially Singer’s point of view. Besides getting his support for physician assisted suicide from his arguments for euthanasia, and the distinction between these two concepts and the concept of natural death, I argue that physician assisted suicide is the morally best choice among the three. The dissertation ends with Singer’s responses to such arguments of Leon R. Kass’s sanctity of life, Kant’s man as an end and Beauchamp’s objection to legalization on the ground of slippery slope. It concludes that physician assisted suicide is not a disrespect of life, nor a harm to physician-patient relation, but the solution for the tragic situation of patient with incurable but painful sickness. Consequently, this dissertation supports physician assisted suicide as a choice for incurable and painful patients to end their miserable life.
    Appears in Collections:[哲學研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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