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    題名: 以辛格之實踐倫理學論基因增強;Judge the genetic enhancement by Singer's practice ethics
    作者: 周孟萱;Meng-Hsuan Chou
    貢獻者: 哲學研究所碩士在職專班
    關鍵詞: 基因增強;辛格;偏好功利主義;利益平等考量原則;替代性論證;生命神聖性;個人自主權;優生學;人格尊嚴;individual autonomy;eugenics;human dignity;genetic enhancement;Peter Singer;preference utilitarianism;equal consideration of benefit;sanctity of life;substitution argument
    日期: 2007-06-12
    上傳時間: 2009-09-22 09:27:34 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要:   基因增強將會是醫學科技進步之下的產物,且因應著所有為人父母的期盼,使他們能給下一代最好的開始、最優良的基因及最佳的能力,賦予他們在下一代的社會中有更強勁的競爭力和發展力。 因此,一旦基因增強的技術發展成熟之後,將會是所有人極欲爭取施行的手術,不過基因增強手術雖然能夠滿足許多人的殷殷企盼,但是在這個議題底下,存在著許多倫理問題,例如:基因增強是否會造成社會階層的對立、貧富差距的拉大、社會的正義公平受到衝擊、胚胎是否能夠進行基因增強手術、基因庫單一化的危機、父母或下一代的自主權是否會受到侵犯、基因增強可以增強的界線在哪裡、基因增強手術失敗後的個體如何處置、基因增強是否會帶來生命商品化的疑慮、基因增強會不會傷害到下一代的人格尊嚴等,在沒有解決這些道德難題之前,基因增強如果貿然實施,就有可能會為整個社會和環境帶來意想不到的衝擊,因此,基因增強若要付諸實行,就必須先通過這些嚴苛的考驗。   為了評估實施基因增強手術將會為社會和地球帶來什麼影響,因此就必須審慎了解其中的利弊,如果當利益多於弊端的話,則基因增強的發展才有可能得到支持,且能更進一步的運用在每個人身上;但如果當弊端多於利益的話,則表示基因增強可能會為社會和環境帶來很大的負面影響,它的發展和運用就必須受到嚴格的限制。而如果要從利益的多寡來看待基因增強,則以功利主義的角度為出發點就會是相當合適的,因為功利主義在考量一件事情的可行性,就是要考量到所有受到事件影響的事物,當把全部的利益都計算進去,才能夠了解這件事所帶來的利益是否大於弊端,辛格(Peter Singer)是一位功利主義者,而且他還著重於每個人偏好的考量,對於地球上所有物種的利益也都平等看待,因此,以他的觀點做為本篇論文的論據,在計算基因增強所帶來的利弊之外,還能夠更貼近每位受到基因增強影響的父母、社會、環境的偏好,將利益的計算考量的更加縝密。   本文期能以辛格的偏好功利主義、利益平等考量原則來計算基因增強可能會帶來的正面效益和負面效益,並對可能帶來的衝擊做一番分析與評估,希望未來在進行基因增強的發展和手術之前,能夠提供一些觀點和想法做為參考。 With medical scientific and technological progress genetic enhancement is becoming a reality that answer the expectations of every parent enabling them to offer their progeny the best starting point, the finest gene and the best capability, so that they have the edge of vigorous competitiveness and development in the next generation.. Once the technique of genetic enhancement is ready, everyone would want to have it implemented. However, though genetic enhancement would fulfill our wishes, there are a lot ethical issues in line. For example, there are worries that it may cause social oppositions, widen the gap between rich and poor, endanger social justice, whether we ought to operate genetic enhancement on embryos, whether it would lead to diminishing the gene pool, whether the autonomy of parents or the next generation be infringed, boundary of genetic enhancement, the handling of the individual in failing cases, its effect of commercialization of life upon human dignity, etc. Before solving these difficult ethical problems, genetic enhancement may bring along unexpected impacts for our society and environment, so if genetic enhancement is to be carried out, it must be critically assessed. For the evaluation of the impact of genetic enhancement upon the earth and our society, we must be very scrupulously in finding out the pros and cons among them. If it provides more interests than drawbacks, genetic enhancement could be supported and could be applied. But if the drawbacks exceed benefits, genetic enhancement must be curded. Taking account of consequences is the perspective of utilitarianism, and hence a good starting for our considerations. Peter Singer, a utilitarian, and his preference utilitarianism and the principle of equal consideration is naturally the best choice for such discussions. His point of view gives weights to the preference of parents, society, and environment and puts the account of interest in genetic enhancement more in focus. This dissertation tries to evaluate the consequences of genetic enhancement from Peter Singer’s perspective, and analyses the impacts of genetic enhancement so as to provide us some points of reference before we launch the practice of genetic enhancement.
    顯示於類別:[哲學研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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