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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/46399


    Title: 《莊子》命論之研究;On the Theory of Fate and Destiny (ming) in Zhuang-zi.
    Authors: 趙敏芝;Chau Ming
    Contributors: 哲學研究所
    Keywords: 道家;安時處順;真宰;;莊子;following natural course;authentic self;ming;Zhaung-zi;Daoism
    Date: 2011-01-24
    Issue Date: 2011-06-04 15:16:37 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本文的主要關注點是,當人類在既定境遇中遭逢到生命的悖謬與死亡時,該以什麼樣的態度讓吾人的身、心、靈獲得妥貼安適?當人們向天發出質問「使我至此極者」時,是否可以在《莊子》的「命」論中得到啟明的智慧? 本文從先秦之「天命」向「命」發展的歷史背景下進行檢視, 首先確定了儒家對「命」的態度與理解,實是賦予了原始「天命」觀新義,進而形成二者不同的規定:「命」指人無法抗爭的異己力量和必然性,「天命」則體現出人作為德性生命之認肯。 《莊子》則有著不同於儒家的思考。《莊子》的「命」論主要是出於對情感的要求,並且是以所遭受的生老病死作為走向生命自由的邏輯起點。《莊子》發現「命」在人的生命歷程中有兩個發展方向:一為人的有限性(命限)遮蔽了人的真宰,使生命陷於痛苦;一為人的無限性(真宰),它的發用,超越了命限,最後並得到自由的證悟。就前者言,人只要「一受其成形」,死生窮達貧富等問題必然隨之而來,在此意義下,人所受命於天之「命」,既為本然之限制,當人力有未逮改變現狀時,就只得順受之,坦然以對。牟宗三先生認為,「命這觀念不是一時空中的客觀事實,也不是知識,故只能在相順或不相順的分際上去感受」。無奈人之成心做出了主觀的價值的選取,而有種種評價的分判與扭曲,這種以一己之是非好惡看待所處的生活世界,自然形成「天刑」之苦,反過來使吾人不能逍遙。故《莊子》除申言以「不得已為命」,以提揭自然而然、委任運化之意,找尋可能的超越向度。此即生命處境應以心(真心、靈臺)為主導,不過在登假於真宰後,還須返回生活世界中發用靈臺之心,以達到安時而處順。《莊子》將命與道、德、氣、天、性擺在同一層級,訴之命與道、德、氣、天、性不二之意蘊;徐復觀先生亦有「德、性無別」之論;如此一來,便可使得偶遇之命不再只是在諸現象中折騰,而有一根源性(或動力因)的說明,由此看來,「命」與「道」實無別。文中為加深證成上述論題的可行性,探討了窺知天命的算命者神巫季咸,並不能決定吾人的命運;以及所謂超越是指懂得與時間相處,與「惡」為伴。本文並依《莊子》之哲學,申論對《莊子》之若干誤解,建立郭象解莊之正確性,也批駁了以為《莊子》惡生樂死、否定道德、《莊子》之內聖外王即儒家之內聖外王,以及《莊子》只談解脫,不談解救等謬誤。 總言之,《莊子》之「道」以無為無待的實現原理,讓萬物得以有自由伸展的機會,透過靈臺之淨化施及吾人生命,超越命限。這種由命轉向道,並冥合於道的生命歷程,終能獲得真正的自由與逍遙。 The primary concern of the thesis is the attitude with which mankind shouldaptly entertain in their confrontations with life’s absurdness and death, so as to acquire the physical, mental, and spiritual tranquility and comfort. As we present the interrogation of “what exactly contributes to such extreme agonies to which I am subjected“, what can we be intellectually enlightened in Zhuang-zi’s philosophy of fate or destiny (ming)? This essay conducts the investigation through the historical backgrounds which evolved from the “mandate of the heaven (tian ming)” in early pre-Qin dynasties to fate or destiny (ming)”. I first clarify Confucian attitude and understanding of ming as a development of the primitive concept of tian ming with new innovations. Ming refers to the compelling external force with inevitability, while tian ming refers to the acknowledgement that mankind is the creature as a moral being. Zhuang-zi differs radically from Confucian way of thinking. Zhuang-zi’s philosophy of ming is principally constructed on the demands for sentiments, with its logical point of departure with sufferings, such as birth, aging, diseases, and death, towards the freedom and emancipation of life. Zhuang-zi points out that ming has two directions of development: one is that mankind’s finitude (the limitations of life) overwhelms one’s authentic self and causes all the pains of human life. The other direction is the manifestation of the authentic self, which transcends the limitations of life and finally attains freedom and emancipation. In the former case, the formation of human body leads necessary to life and death, good and bad luck, rich and poor. In this course, the ming that confers to us is a natural limitation, which we could not change but to accept as it comes without any complain. Tsung-san Mou argues that “the idea of ming is neither an objective reality in space-time, nor a sort of knowledge; therefore we can only sustain it in an accepting or not accepting ways..” Nevertheless, our pre-judging mind cannot help but make subjective selection and evaluation of our living world, thus leads to various judgments and distortions of values. We are disposed to view the world in terms of right or wrong, good or bad and become sufferers of such “natural punishment”. We thus could not be free. This is precisely why Zhuang-zi asserts that “ming is to follow the natural course”, to let things be, to observe the changes as it may, so as to discover the transcendental dimension of our life. This means that we guide our life with our authentic heart/mind. Yet, after arriving at our authentic self, we need to come back to our living world to realize the Dao in living as nature unfolds without any rejection. Zhuang-zi places ming on the same theoretical level with Dao, de (virtue), chi (matter), tian, and hsin (nature), indicating that they are intrinsically and structurally one unity. Likewise, Fu-kuan Hsu disputed the differentiations between nature and virtue. Consequently, the seemingly arbitrary ming is no longer a chaos of our phenomenal world and we furnish an onto-genetic (or causal) explanation of our fate. Hence, there is not the least distinction between ming and Dao. To consolidate further the result, I analyzed and established that fortune-teller could not determine our fate. To transcend our fate means to live well within time, in the companion of with evil. Lastly, in this thesis, I have establish the correctness of Guo Xiang’s commentaries, as well as refuted some misconceived ideas such as Zhaung-zi’s allegedly preference of death over life, his rejection of morality, the prevalent belief that his thesis of “inward sageness and outward kingliness” is the same as Confucianism, and that Zhaung-zi offers elusive emancipation rather than practical solutions for life.
    Appears in Collections:[哲學研究所] 博碩士論文

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