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    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4708


    題名: 北臺灣隘墾社會轉型之研究:以新竹關西地區為例(1886-1945);The Transformation of Frontier Society in Northern Taiwan : A Case Study of Hsin-chu's Kuan-hsi Region, 1886-1945
    作者: 陳志豪;Chih-Hao Chen
    貢獻者: 歷史研究所
    關鍵詞: 撫墾局;金廣成;新竹關西;鹹菜甕;地方菁英;地方社會;隘墾社會;Hsin-chu;Kuan-his;Fu-Ken Office;Jin-guang-cheng;Sian-cia-wong;Local Society;Local Elites;Frontier Society
    日期: 2006-06-06
    上傳時間: 2009-09-22 09:30:34 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 本文所討論的主題是北臺灣的隘墾社會在19世紀中葉以後,受到政治、經濟與社會變遷的影響,出現了什麼樣的轉變,而這些轉變又有什麼樣的歷史意義。在討論過程中,本文選擇以新竹關西地區作為研究個案,藉由區域個案的觀察,來探政治、經濟等層面的變遷,對於隘墾社會所帶來的衝擊。 在18世紀末,北臺灣的地方政府策略性的開放漢人與熟番結盟的武裝開墾集團,進入沿山地區建立起帶有防衛性質的武裝聚落,同時允許這些聚落中的地方菁英,擁有籌組私人武力、免繳土地稅等權利。這種處於半自治狀態下的地方社會,即為本文所稱的隘墾社會。本文的研究指出了隘墾社會到了19世紀中葉後,隨著地方菁英對於經濟資源競爭,以及缺乏明確法理體制的規範,使得隘墾社會陷入了紛擾不休的情況。同時,統治當局也因為國際情勢的變化,開始改變過去放任地方菁英壟斷沿山經濟資源的策略,並成立撫墾局等行政體制外的協辦單位,協助地方政府著手整頓隘墾社會的租稅制度與武裝力量。到了1895年日本殖民政權統治臺灣後,統治當局整頓邊區的企圖更加強烈。租稅與地權的重新規範,以及保甲、警察、教育、地方行政等制度的陸續建立,都促使了隘墾社會的自治色彩逐漸消失。而受到政治與經濟環境轉變的影響下,隘墾社會的地方菁英也面臨了新挑戰。有不少地方菁英因為面臨集團內部的衝突,甚至政策的轉變使其影響力大幅下降,例如曾擔任墾戶(開墾與治安的管理者)的衛氏家族(熟番)以及鄭氏、連氏家族等。但在另一方面,也有不少地方菁英趁勢而起,例如因協助統治當局有功的羅碧玉、周源寶等;以及成功掌握商機而獲利的陳旺回、陳逢茂等,相繼成為了地方上的新興領袖人物。此外,進入到20世紀以後,除了私人武裝拓墾的行為因為國家控制力量的強化而走向終結,地方社會在國家政策的影響與地方菁英的推動下,也開始出現多元化的發展。聚落人口的增加、近代交通的建設以及產業的革新,帶動了公共空間與公共活動的多元化,這些變化都具體的反映了隘墾社會的轉型。 本文的研究成果主要有三個貢獻,第一、本文透過區域個案的觀察,釐清了隘墾社會從邊區型態過渡到近代國家體制下的歷史過程,並探討了統治當局如何建立起各種統治制度,去控制這些過去被視為邊陲的區域。第二、本文指出了近代臺灣地方菁英在維持社會地位的策略上,除了透過經濟或婚姻的結盟關係以及參與公共事務的過程等,來增加自己的經濟與象徵資本之外,他們也必須更進一步的依賴國家制度所賦予的實質或象徵性權威。第三、本文透過地方經濟與社會的多元化發展情況,說明了國家政策與地方菁英的影響力,即是推動社會轉型的主要關鍵因素。 The theme in this study is to discuss changes to the frontier society in northern Taiwan after mid 19th century under influences of politics, economics and society and the historical meaning of such changes. During the discussion, the researcher selects Kuan-shi area in Hsin-chu as the study case. With the observation on the area case, the researcher explores the impact to the frontier soci-ety by political and economic changes. At the end of the 18th century, local government in northern Taiwan strategically allowed the armed reclamation groups by Han people and plains aborigines to establish armed villages with defense nature along the mountains. In the meantime, local elites from these villages were allowed to establish their private armed force and exempt from land tax. This local society under semi-autonomous society is the frontier society in this article. The researcher points out that after mid 19th century, frontier society was in the state of chaos due to competition of local elites on economic resources and lack of specific legal system standard. Besides, owing to changes of in-ternational situation, the authorities also changed the strategy of letting local elites occupy the economic resources along the mountains. They established the “Fu-Ken office” and “Ai-Yung battalion”(both are the coordination unit without administration system) to help local government rectify land tax and armed force of frontier society. In 1895 after the Japanese ruled Taiwan, the ruling authorities had stronger intention to rectify the border. Tax and land rights were re-regulated. Systems of Pao-chia, police, education and local administration were established, leading to grad-ual loss of autonomy of frontier society. Under the political and economic influences, local elites in frontier society faced new challenges, too. Some had significant decrease of their influence due to internal conflict of the group or even changes of policies. Example is the Wei family (plains aborigine, once serving as Ken-hu), the Chengs and the Liens, etc. On the other hand, however, some other elites, such as Lo Pi-yu and Chou Yuan-pao, took the advantage and grew after helping the ruling authorities. Chen Wan-hui and Chen Feng-mao, etc made a big fortune by grabbing the business opportunities. They had become the new local leaders. Also, in the 20th century, besides the end of private armed reclamation due to strengthened control power of the state, local society started diverse development thanks to the influence of national policies and local elites. Increase of village population, construction of modern traffic and innovation in industry brought diversifica-tion of public space and activities. All these changes truly reflect the Transformation of frontier society. The results of this study have three major contributions: 1) the article clarifies the historical process of frontier society from border state to the contemporary national system through area case observation and discusses how ruling authorities established each governing system to control the once-regarded border areas. 2) Contemporary local elites had to further depend on the actual or symbolic authority endowed by the national system to increase their own economic and symbolic capital in addition to alliance relationship of economics or marriages and participation of public affairs. 3) With local economic and society diverse development, the article explains the influence of national policies and local elites, which is the key factor of promoting social transformation.
    顯示於類別:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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