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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4713

    Title: 日治時期桃園輕鐵的經營與發展,1903-1945;The Development of the Taoyuan Light-Rail Company during the Colonial Era
    Authors: 陳家豪;Chia-hao Chen
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 輕便軌道;交通運輸;桃園客運;地方菁英;公路運輸;企業管理;transportation;local elite;Taoyuan Bus Company;business administration;light-rail
    Date: 2007-06-05
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:30:41 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 本文利用「桃園汽車客運股份有限公司」(桃園輕鐵為其前身)內部所藏的營運資料為主,以桃園輕鐵這一個案,觀察在日治時期資本主義的發展過程中,臺人企業的經營情況,並了解當時交通運輸會社的運作實態,以及輕便軌道與公路運輸這兩項運輸工具所扮演的角色與功能。 透過本文的討論可知,桃園輕鐵成立以來,歷經諸多挑戰,包括營運之初的協助理蕃事業、一次大戰初期的物價高漲、戰間期的全球大恐荒、二次大戰全面性的物資管制,以及其他民營業者的競爭、天災所造成路線與設備經常性的損壞、桃園地區農村週期性的減產等等。但在官方協助與簡朗山等地方菁英的努力下,採取買收、緊縮支出、票價調整……等一系列措施來加以因應,其中,又以公路運輸的開始營運最重要,使桃園輕鐵不僅不因輕便軌道萎縮而營收大減,反而在公路運輸屢創佳績的帶領下,企業規模日益狀大,成為一資本額達150萬圓,營運範圍廣及北臺灣的交通運輸企業。 桃園輕鐵的經營成功,充分反映簡朗山等地方菁英的管理能力,這在內部運作方面表現的更為淋漓盡致,包括組織架構合理且朝分工專業化邁進、制度設計嚴明但有人性、用人取才盡可能考量其專業背景,並要求必須具備基本學經歷,整體而言為一具近代化性格的企業。簡朗山等地方菁英令人注目的表現,還在始終維持住以臺人為主體一點,雖然日人勢力在日治後期越來越重要,但經營權卻未被僭奪,可說是日治時期相當具本土色彩的企業。 由於桃園輕鐵的成立,使地方社會在社會經濟結構上有所轉變。在經濟方面,產業與觀光發展更加旺盛、「商品化」速度加快,並建構出一個以桃園輕鐵為中心的商業網絡。在社會方面,使區域人口流動更加頻繁、讓簡朗山等地方菁英從清代所建構的文化權力網絡(the cultural nexus of power)得以維持並擴大。同時最為重要,桃園輕鐵的員工多招募地區人士,無形增加工作機會,而員工在桃園輕鐵內部之職位乃是一種社會身份(social identity),透過企業內部的升遷管道來加薪加職,正實質改善著自己的生活與地位,具有社會流動(social mobility)的意義。 本文亦順便觀察地方菁英及其背後所代表臺人資本的角色。發現地方菁英在日治時期相當活躍,將「合作」、「自主」或「抗爭」等手段當做維護自身利益、地位與影響力的一種策略(strategies),他們會透過投資近代交通運輸會社,來繼續保有乃至於擴大原有的財富、聲望與影響力,並將之延續到第二代身上。由於地方菁英相當活潑,透過桃園輕鐵這個個案可知,臺人資本也非常活躍的投入其中,並成為主體。 The archives of the Taoyuan Light-Rail Company (today’s Taoyuan Bus Company) form the basis for this case study, which examines the ways in which Taiwanese entrepreneurs managed local enterprises. This thesis pays particular attention to the factors underlying the successful growth of the Taoyuan Light-Rail Company, particularly the role of the light-rail and bus industries in Taoyuan’s socioeconomic development during the colonial era, when Taiwan was ruled by Japan. The data collected for this thesis show that the Taoyuan Light-Rail Company faced many challenges over time, including damage caused by natural disasters, threats from Mountain Aborigines prior to 1911, inflation during the First World War, the economic disruptions of the Great Depression, state rationing of goods and raw materials during World War II, and competition from other transportation companies. Nevertheless, the Taoyuan Light-Rail Company proved able to develop into one of the island’s leading transport enterprises, with a capitalization of over 1.5 million yen and a business scope covering much of northern Taiwan. This company’s success was due to both the assistance of the colonial state as well as the efforts of local elites like Chien Lang-shan 簡朗山, who utilized business tactics such as buying other transportation corporations, reducing expenses, adjusting fares, etc. In particular, the transformation of the Taoyuan Light-Rail Company’s operations from light-rail to bus played an important role in ensuring its survival when light-rail transportation had entered a period of irreversible decline. The managerial skills of these elites enabled them to retain control of the Taoyuan Light-Rail Company throughout the entire colonial era, despite the participation of Japanese businessmen during the 1930s and 1940s. Thus, we can argue with confidence that this company was a truly native enterprise. The Taoyuan Light-Rail Company also had a major impact on Taoyuan’s social and economic development. In terms of the local economy, the transportation networks established by this company promoted industrial growth and tourism, while also contributing to the formation of new commercial networks. In terms of local society, the fact that this company employed large numbers of Taoyuan natives contributed to social mobility, as well as the formation of social identity. In addition, this company constituted an important component of local elites’ cultural nexus of power. Finally, the strategies employed by Taiwanese elites in managing this company, which could range from cooperation to self-reliance to resistance, reveal the manifold ways in which elites could advance their interests and assure continued dominance over local society.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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