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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4721

    Title: 戰後初期臺灣鐵路事業之研究(1945-1947);The Take-over and Transport Business of Taiwan Railway Administration Committee in the Early postwar Period (1945-1947)
    Authors: 莊建華;Chien-Hua Chuang
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 日籍人員;運輸;留用政策;接收政策;戰後初期;鐵路管理委員會;臺灣省行政長官公署;二二八事件;Japanese administrator;Taiwan Railway Administration Committee;Adoptive policy;The Early PostWar Period;The Take-over policy;Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Offic;Trasportation;The February 28 incident
    Date: 2007-06-12
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:30:51 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 戰後,臺灣省行政長官公署於臺成立後,設立鐵路管理委員會,辦理鐵路事業接收事宜,並負責營運業務。鐵路管理委員會辦理接收時,一方面因受限於兩岸交通運輸,造成接收人員不足;又因接收法令的紊亂、接收財產的複雜、語言的隔閡,導致接收過程冗長與混亂。 人事制度方面,此一時期鐵路管理委員會因政權轉移,大量日籍人員的遣送與中國技術官僚的充任,造成該會人員異動頻繁。中國管理人員的替補並不如預期順利,因此日籍技術官員的留用適時維持初期鐵路運輸與技術傳承。第一批來臺的中國官員資質與水準皆為一時之選,後因任用資格放寬,許多並非專業的人員,亦能進入鐵路管理委員會任職,造成「外行領導內行」的現象。 鐵路營運方面,因受限於材料與維修經費不足,導致出軌事件頻傳,鐵路管理委員會受輿論壓力,逐步改善線路,才使鐵路安全得以保障。其次,鐵路管理委員會因人事支出過大,屢次調整客貨物運價,導致運輸成績的下滑,間接促成戰後物價上漲的主因。 一九四七年二二八事件的發生,造成台北地區鐵路中斷,人員逃散,部分台籍員工努力維持列車運轉,才使鐵路運輸不至於中斷。國民黨軍隊登陸後,掌控交通機關,鐵路管理委員會各單位皆受警備總司令部管制,造成鐵路運輸全面中斷。二二八事件導致鐵路管理委員會的營運損失、計畫延宕,卻催生出鐵路工會。 最後,鐵路管理委員會的接收情況相對於中國各地區域有共產黨的干預來的單純許多,卻因種種原因而顯的紊亂,該會利用接收政策管控民間交通公司,加上管理人員、管理制度上的變化呈現出中國與日本兩套制度並存的現象。本文研究以鐵路管理委員會接收與營運事業為主,透過對鐵路事業的研究,瞭解戰後初期臺灣省行政長官公署的接收與施政。 After the war, Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Office was established in Taiwan. The office set up Taiwan Railway Administration Committee to handle the take over of railway and the operation of business. The tediously process and chaos of the take over was due to some reasons. One was the constrains of transportation between Taiwan and China when Taiwan Railway Administration Committee handle the take over, and another reasons included the disorder of laws, the complicated property of take over, and the Language barrier. For the personnel system, the employees in Taiwan Railway Administration Committee exchange frequently. Plentiful Japanese Employees were sent back and the vacancies were filled by Chinese technological bureaucrat. The substitution of the Chinese administrative staffs was not successfully as their expectation. Therefore, Japanese technological officers were kept for the objects of the initial stage railway transportation and the transforming technology. The qualification and competence of these first Chinese officers were the best, but the government canceled many restricts of the qualification in employees. It result the phenomenon of “the non-professional workers led the professional employees”. As for the respect of the operation of the railway, because of the limits in the shortage of the materials and budgets, the accidents of the train happened frequently. Railway Administration Committee was forced by the pressure of the public opinion, than they improve the facilities of the railway. The railway became safer. Secondly, Railway Administration Committee adjusted the freight rate again and again, and caused the inflation in the post-war indirectly. These were due to the considerable expenditures of the employees’ salary. In 1947, the February 28 incident raised. It caused the railway in Taipei district broken down. Accounting on the efforts of some Taiwanese staff, the operation of the railway avoid total cut off. After the army of Kuomintang landed, they controlled the traffic organization. All of the organizations of the Railway Administration Committee were controlled by Head office of garrison command. Although the February 28 incident caused the loss of the operation and the procrastination of the plans, it hastened the birth of the labor union of the railway. Finally, the situations of the take-over in Railway Administration Committee were simpler relative to the situations in Mainland Chain, but it became disorder because of some reasons. The committee used the take-over policy to control the folk traffic company. In addition, the changes on administrative staff and management system demonstrate the phenomenon of two set systems in China and Japan. This paper mainly focuses on the take-over and operation of the Railway Administration Committee. Through the study on the railway business, we understand the take-over and the government policies of the railway in Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Office in early Post War period.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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