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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4727

    Title: 從國營到民營:戰後臺灣國營紡織業之變遷(1950-1972);From State-Run to Private: The Change of Taiwan State-Run Textile enterprises in the postwar(1950-1972
    Authors: 莊濠賓;Hao-bin Zhuang
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 台北紡織股份有限公司;雍興實業股份有限公司;中國紡織建設股份公司;Taiwan Textile Industrial co.Yung Shing Industr;Taipei Cotton Textile co.state-run Textile enter;Textile Industry
    Date: 2009-06-30
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:30:59 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 本文旨在論述1950年至1970年之間,國營紡織企業的發展情形、民營化的過程與政策探討。 二次大戰結束後,日本人留下來的龐大資產皆悉數由中華民國政府接收,尤其是紡織工業。政府以此龐大的國營事業做為經濟管制的工具,遭致強大的反對聲浪,引發的是一連串的通貨膨漲,繼而導致經濟整體的崩潰。雖然政府在大陸時期有如此慘痛經驗,但其遷台後,衡量到世界各國皆以發展紡織業來復甦本土經濟,以及民生所需,所以也選擇發展此一產業來健全台灣經濟。 為發展紡織業,政府提出一系列保護政策,許多皆為延續大陸時期之政策。但台灣畢竟在天然資源與地理條件上不如中國,紡織業尤重原料進口,因此紡織業是否適合發展,即引起激烈爭辯。然此一爭辯重心實際上是對計畫管制經濟的一種不滿,希冀能夠實行自由經濟。但1949年政府來台後府面臨的是經濟極待復甦的海島,政府首先面臨的是如何運用有限的資源來培植特定產業。原先僅有薄弱基礎的紡織業,一躍而成為保護政策下的產業。然而,台灣發展紡織業並不一定有利於國際貿易的推展,這也是為何政府會採取保護政策的施行,並限制外貨,一時台灣市場成為獨佔。 政府的總體經濟政策中,民營化是主要的施政方針,但民營化有其條件,即是重工業、國防產業或是具獨占性質的產業。但是政府仍然延續自大陸時期即已存在的國營紡織業,將從大陸遷台的中紡及雍興實業公司加以復營,並新設台北紡織公司,如此實已與政府政策相悖離。發展國營紡織業,政府雖有其利益考量,但也引發了反對的聲浪,尤其在民營化思潮逐漸興起之時,與民爭利的國營紡織業存在更形尷尬。因此在1950年代初期,政府即有意將中紡出售,但因故而未實行,1960年代初期,台灣紡織業普遍面臨不景氣,國營紡織業亦開始出現經營困難的窘境,政府遂再起合併或出售國營紡織業之想法。此時的環境,與政府遷台初期已大不相同,紡織業的內銷市場早已飽和,外銷國際市場已是必要的生存之道,但受限於國營事業的體制問題,國營紡織廠在經營上不如民營紡織業具有彈性,而政府在眼見虧損之時,又不欲投入金額改善產品品質,於是形成了惡性循環,在1960年代,國營紡織業的未來即是在合併、出售之間徘徊不已。 故本研究即以國營紡織廠為研究對象,透過對其事業的發展、營運、衰落,企圖對當時政府的產業政策做一探討,以檢視在戰後初期至出口擴張時期,台灣的經濟情況、政府的經濟政策乃至落實而產生的結果。 This paper attempts to rethink the whole Industrial Policy made by Chinese Governments by discussing the operation and process of privatization in state-run Textile enterprises during 1950-1972. After WWⅡ, plenty of Japanese assets, called enemy property at that time, was taken into custody by Chinese Governments. The most important industry in Japanese assets was textile companies. In order to revived and controlled the economy, already broken by Sino-Japan war, Chinese Governments employed the enemy property, which should be give back to Chinese civil because most parts plundered from Chinese, to construct the system of state-run enterprises, and the cotton estate justly played the main role . However, the system collapsed for strongly opposite arguments issued by civil as well as a out of office control inflation happened since 1948. Although, Chinese Governments got a bitter experience of economic failure before 1949, they still continued above economic policies, which was to develop the system of state-run enterprises with all their strength, after withdrawing from China mainland and move the all government organizations to Taiwan when they lose civil war. Why Chinese Governments didn’t change their economic policies after 1949? This was because Chinese Government perceived that other countries all recovered their local economy by running the textile industry. Therefore, technocrats determined to expand the textile industry as well as establish several state-run Textile enterprises, which was Taiwan Textile Industrial Co., Yung Shing Industrial co., Taipei Cotton Textile co., for saving the foreign exchange and protecting the native market in Formosa. Chinese Governments issued a series of protective policies which had been made and executed in China mainland during Taiwan import substitution era. Nevertheless, there are different geographical conditions between Taiwan and China mainland, such as Taiwan produced cottons anymore. Afterward, it caused a seriously debate that was Taiwan a right location to develop textile industry. I find that the debate was a war between planned economy and liberal economic in essence, parts of scholars and entrepreneurs opposed protective policies among textile industry because of against planned economy but expecting liberal economic on market operation. Despite Chinese Governments endeavored to assist the management of state-run Textile enterprises in 1950s, the idea of privatization also emerged at technocrats mind, they proposed to sell Taiwan Textile Industrial co in the early 1950s, but gave up the proposal as a result. Up to 1960s, all state-run Textile enterprises involved in capital-deduction, they gradually lost the competency contrasting with private Textile enterprises. Although, The administration knows the problems of management of state-run Textile enterprise, but they wouldn’t like to approved quality of manufacture by investing capital. In the ended, the state-run Textile enterprise couldn’t exist anymore, then the administration needed to think about the dilemma which was the combination of two state-run Textile enterprise or sold them.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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