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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4729


    Title: 方從哲與晚明政局之研究(1614-1628);The study of Tsung Che Fang and political situation during the later Ming Dynasty(1614-1628)
    Authors: 林聖坤;Sheng-kun Lin
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 方從哲;晚明政局;首輔;political situation during the later Ming Dynasty;the first grand secretary;Tsung Che Fang
    Date: 2007-06-26
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:31:01 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 明代至萬曆後期,朝政已大非。因此,後人有以萬曆年間,作為明代國勢由 盛轉衰的關鍵時期。而《明史》在評論明代之衰亡時,有「明之亡,神宗實基之, 而從哲其罪首也。」的說法,方從哲為萬曆朝最後一任首輔,因此成為明代興衰 的關鍵人物。 自萬曆四十二年方從哲接任首輔開始,政局屢有重大變動。萬曆四十三年, 發生危及儲君安全的「梃擊案」。萬曆四十五年的「丁巳京察」,引發了激烈的門 戶之爭。萬曆四十六年,奴兒哈赤突襲撫順,遂正式與明朝決裂。並於次年,發 生薩爾滸戰役,經略楊鎬慘敗,導致明軍三路喪師。萬曆四十八年,神宗逝世後 由光宗即位,然而在位僅一個月餘,就發生「紅丸案」,致使光宗猝死。光宗死 後,李選侍仍佔居乾清宮,引起廷臣與李選侍的激烈衝突,故此案稱為「移宮案」。 同年十二月,方從哲致仕,結束了六年又四個月的首輔生涯。 方從哲執政期間,政績乏善可陳,且性格柔佞,對於皇帝不敢執奏。雖任首 輔統領百僚,然而遇事不能決斷,更透過與門戶黨派的關係,彼此互為奧援,樹 立不良的政風。明代首輔之地位,至張居正去世後,日漸衰落,而至方從哲任首 輔,除了客觀的政治環境外,更由於從哲個人能力與性格的因素,致使閣權更不 如前。此外,因方從哲決策失當,而使對遼東用兵失利,明軍損失慘重,影響明 朝滅亡既深且遠。而在首輔任內,對「三案」處理失宜,致使門戶之爭嚴重,論 爭不斷,皆是致使明朝走入衰亡的因素。 本論文將自萬曆四十二年(1614)方從哲接任首輔開始,至崇禎元年(1628) 方從哲去世為止,透過對方從哲的研究,了解方從哲在晚明政局中,所扮演的角 色和地位。並藉此研究,分析晚明的政治環境,以及政府運作之情形,並探討影 響明代衰亡的因素。 The Ming Dynasty to the later of Wan Li emperor, political affairs had decadency. Therefore, later generations consider the Wan Li age as the critical period that the powerful Ming Dynasty nation power turn into weak. And that ”the Ming Shin ”criticized the declining and falling moment of Ming Dynasty. There was a version of ” the Ming Dynasty crumbled, Shen Tzung in the next place, and the first malefactor was Tsung Che”. Tsung Che Fang is the last premier of the Wan Li age, so he is the key person of to make the prosperity and adversity of the Ming Dynasty. Since the year of Wan Li 42, Tsung Che Fang taken charge of the premier, the political situation had grand variations frequently. In the year of Wan Li 43, there was an event happened that”The rod attacked affair” compromised of a crown prince safe. In the year of Wan Li 45,”The ting szu ching cha” solicited acrimonious factional altercation. In the year of Wan Li 46, Slave Kazak red attacks Fushun, then officially breaks off with the Ming Dynasty. Next year, the Saar hu campaign happened. After slightly Yang pickaxe disastrous defeat, it causes the bright armed force three groups to be completely destroyed. In the year of Wan Li 48, Shen zong emperor died and Guang zong emperor took his place. However, Guang zong emperor served the post of emperor only one month and more, at once,“red pellet affair”happened and caused him sudden death . After emperor Guang- zong died , Li-xuan shi still occupied gan-qing-palace , and caused courtiers to afoul of Li-xuan shi clash strongly. That affair was called“shift out palace affair”. By December this year, Tsung Che Fang stepped down and ended to fill the first grand-secretary during six years and four months. During the period of Tsung Che Fang ruling the government, the achievements in his official career had nothing good or unusual to report. Moreover, his character was supple-cunning. Tsung Che Fang was afraid of speaking out in front of the emperor. Although he was the first grand-secretary, he handled the government affairs with less decisiveness. Furthermore, Tsung Che Fang was supported by other factions and established a bad political environment. After Chu-Cheng Chang died, the position of the first grand-secretary went down in the Ming Dynasty. Except for the political environment, his personal abilities and characters caused the power of the grand-secretary lower than before. Besides, because of the wrong decision, Ming Chao commanded troops to Hou-Jin unsuccessfully and caused great damage to the crops of Ming Chao. That event had a far-reaching influence on the crumbled Ming Chao. Tsung Che Fang’s mismanagement to deal with “three-affair” as he was the first grand-secretary caused serious argues between the factions. Those are the reasons to lead to degeneracy of Ming Chao. This thesis study ranges from the year of Wan Li 42, the time that Tsung Che Fang filled the first grand-secretary, to the year of Chong Zhen 1, which he died. Through the study of Tsung Che Fang, can help to find the characters and positions he had during the later Ming Dynasty .This study also analyzed political environment and the work of the government, and discussed the reasons that Ming Dynasty came to an end .
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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