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    Title: 退輔會榮民安置與梨山地區的農業發展(1956-1987年);Retired Servicemen Settlement of VAC and Agriculture Development of Lishan Area (1956- 1987)
    Authors: 黃柏松;Po-sung Huang
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 榮民;退輔會;武陵農場;溫帶落葉果;福壽山農場;Deciduous Fruit of Temperate Zone.;Wuling Farm;Fusoshan Farm;Retired Servicemen;VAC (Veterans Affairs Commission
    Date: 2007-07-10
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:31:05 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 本文研究主題,以戰後我國成立退輔會安置榮民就業為主軸。然退輔會安置榮民就業範圍廣泛,故本文探討範圍就地區言以梨山地區為限。梨山其地理位置正位於臺中、宜蘭、南投三縣之間,海拔高達1,500公尺以上,氣候介於溫、寒帶之間,自古以來即為泰雅族沙拉茅群的活動區。日治時期日人曾於此試植落葉果樹,為全臺最早種植蘋果、水梨、水蜜桃的地區。戰後政府以國防需要、均衡臺灣東西部經濟發展,以及改善山地原住民生活為由,開闢中橫公路。並結合榮民安置,以美援為資金,榮民為人力,做到「化兵為工」,轉消費為生產的目標,於四十五年七月七日動工興築中橫公路。次年又以生產新鮮蔬菜提供築路工人之需要,於梨山設置「梨山榮民農場」,展開退輔會於梨山安置榮民從事農業之緣起,與梨山農業發展的歷程。然在農業展歷程上,因榮民都從軍中轉業而來別無長技,更不解農事。故榮民在其農業發展目標的選擇一秉軍中習性,依命令指示做事,故在蔣經國指示發展對國家外滙有益的農作及平地無法生產的作物下,選擇發展溫帶落葉果樹。而此選擇也正符合四十四年臺中省立學農業學院園藝系,在臺中山地園藝資源調查後之建議,在農復會提供經費與技術支援下。從溫帶果樹試植開始,並配合農復會夏季蔬菜採種試驗,從事蔬菜種植,奠定日後農業發展基礎。落葉果樹種植成功後,福壽山農場在蔣中正總統指示下,將技術移轉給梨山原住民,並提供果苗給原住民種植以改善原住民之生活。因而將落葉果的種植擴及梨山地區各原住民部落,造就出全臺最為富裕的原住民部落。 本研究之對象主要為榮民,而榮民皆為軍人出身,而早期之軍人就個性言長久以來生活於軍中,馳騁於戰場之上,對於命令的貫徹度極高,然民國四十年代退除役接受安置之榮民多為士官兵,故在工作交付後皆視為命令執行,在決策上均甚少提出主張,故一般農經發展呈現由下而上之現象,但這也是中部橫貫公路及梨山農場得以順利達成之原因。 After the War, the Government set us Veterans Affairs Commission with the main duty of settling retired servicemen. The job of settlement is so vast that no one coult really cover everything. The Author selected Lishan Area as an example. Lishan Area is located in Taichung, Yilan and Nantou Counties with elevation of 1500 meters above sea level or higher and the temperature is between temperate zpne and frigid zone. It has been traditionally area of activities of Saramou clan of Atayal tribe. During Japanese Ruling period, they have tried to plant deciduous fruit trees in Lishan area, which made this area as the pioneer in planting apple, pear and peach. In meeting the needs in national defense, balancing economic development in eastern and western Taiwan and improving the living standard of aboriginal tribes, the Government applied US Aids and used retired servicemen as the work forces explored and build Central Cross-Island Highway. It had also the purpose to turn the manpower of retired servicemen from pure consumers into producers. The Cross-Island Highway project commenced on July 7, 1956 and the next year, established Lishan Veterans Farm for supplying fresh vegetables for the road builders. This is the start of settling retired servicemen, as well as agricultural development of Lishan Area. However, since the retired servicemen were all military personnel and were lack of other skills and they were used to following orders, they did not have any skills in agriculture. So, under the order of Chiang Jin-Kuo, that the produces should be benefiting the country in foreign exchange and should not be competing with the ordinary produces of Taiwan farmers, so deciduous fruits were chose. This met exactly to the suggestion of Department of Horticulture of Provincial Taichung College of Agriculture in 1955, after completing Horticulture Resources Investigation of Taichung Mountain areas. Therefore, with the funding and technical support, the farm started with the trial planting of fruit trees of temperate zone. Together with the experiment of summer vegetable seeds collection of Agriculture Restoration Council, it started planting of vegetables. The above laid the foundation of agricultural development of Lishan Area. After the success of trial planting of deciduous fruits, under the instruction of late President Chiang Kai-Shek, Fusoshan Farm started to transfer the skill to aboriginal tribes in Lishan Area, as well as providing seedlings to the aborigines for improving the living of aboriginal tribes. This move spread the planting of deciduous fruit to tribes in Lishan Area,and made they the wealthiest tribal people in Taiwan. The main objects of this research are retired servicemen, especially of low rank soldiers. Since they were retired from military services, they were used to following orders and they fulfilled duties as required without questioning. This is the main cause of success of Centeral Cross-Island Highway and Lishan Farm.
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