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    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4733


    題名: 中華民國退出聯合國歷程之研究(1949?1971);The study of the process of ROC withdrawn from United Nations 1949-1971
    作者: 蔡秉修;Bing-Xiu Tsai
    貢獻者: 歷史研究所
    關鍵詞: 聯合國;中國代表權;雙重代表權;重要問題案;中美關係;the United Nations;Chinese representation;dual representation;important question;Sino-American relationship.
    日期: 2008-06-19
    上傳時間: 2009-09-22 09:31:06 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 本文主要使用美國國務院外交解密檔案(Foreign Relations of the United States簡稱FRUS)、中華民國外交部國際組織司檔案,配合美國國家檔案局檔案(National Archives)、中華民國國史館《蔣中正總統檔案》及《蔣經國總統檔案》研究中華民國年退出聯合國過程。從中觀察中美之間對於維繫中華民國於聯合國之中國代表權會商經過,以及中華民國在世界局勢發展及美國亞洲政策轉變下,如何因應其中國席位。 中國代表權之所以成為聯合國長期討論之問題,最根本之因素在於中華人民共和國於1949年10月1日宣布建國後,原先統治整個中國之中華民國,仍保有臺灣省以及福建省之金門、馬祖等地,形成兩個對立之政權且不相承認。此種態勢讓原先擁有聯合國中國代表權之中華民國政府,繼續代表中國行使其聯合國權力與義務,而後建國之中華人民共和國政府則宣稱應繼承中華民國並擁有中國代表權,代表權問題延宕廿餘年始終未獲解決。 韓戰爆發,中華民國與美國聯手爭取與會國家的支持,於1950年代使用緩議方式,讓聯合國暫緩討論有關中國代表權之相關議案。歷經十年緩議,世界局勢業已變化,原本支持緩議案的加拿大、英國、日本等國向美國表示無法繼續支持,數十個亞非新會員國亦無一支持。1961年中美在維持中國代表權策略上首度發生爭執,美國轉研擬重要問題案等多種方案並希望中華民國政府支持。在甘迺迪向蔣介石傳達其秘密保證後,最終以重要問題案之程序形式,成為往後十年所有排華納共案之門檻。 雖然重要問題案在1960年代發揮功效,國際氛圍卻益對中華民國不利,尼克森任美國總統後,其亞洲政策逐步向中共靠攏,尤其1971年7月美國國家安全顧問季辛吉祕訪大陸之行曝光後,消息瞬間引發全世界對於中共的關注,中華民國政府高層除了安撫國內人民,亦接受了美國更改重要問題案的計畫,以雙重代表權作為因應當時阿爾巴尼亞案之策略。 1971年10月25日由美國所提出之逆重要問題案雖取得了優先表決的機會,最終卻以4票之差未能通過,在美國等國爭取對阿爾巴尼亞案分段表決失利後,中華民國外交部長周書楷以程序形式發言上臺,宣布中華民國不再參加廿六屆大會任何進一步的議事程序,並隨即率團離席退出議場。隨後大會主席將阿爾巴尼亞案付諸大會表決,結果以41票之差通過,成為二十六屆大會2758號決議案。廿二年來聯合國中國代表權問題,正式畫下句點。 透過中美兩國所公布之外交檔案,可以探析中華民國退出聯合國過程之三個情景。其一,了解到美國內部如何運作雙重代表權之形成,尼克森、季辛吉、羅傑斯等人的實際態度與作法。其二,了解中美對於此議案的爭議所在,以及1971年中美對於此議案的會商情形,從形成、定案、到實際操作一連貫過程。其三,可從中獲知中華民國內部決策情況,如何在基本國策下,採取彈性的作法。 This paper analyzes and comments on the process of withdrawal from United Nations(UN) Taiwan suffered, based on mainly Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) and Archives of Department of International Organizations in R.O.C., and also by-archives such as National Archives, Archives of President Chiang Kai-shek, and Archives of President Chiang Ching-Kuo. In general, analyzing the cause and the outcome of negotiations of Chinese representation between R.O.C. and the United States, it can be found that the discussion of rights of Chinese representation shows the development of Republic of China(R.O.C.) during the times when United States of America(U.S.A) changing the Asia policy. The basic reason why “Chinese representation” had become a long-time open question in the General Assembly taken votes every year for more than twenty years in that time is because it was difficult to vote alternatively - the Republic of China(ROC) or the People’s Republic of China(PRC)— which was the “ real ” representative of the China after PRC announced on October 10th 1949 that they had held the reins of government after the Civil War of 1949, when ROC, which had dominated over whole Chine, still has dominion over places such as Taiwan, Chinmen, Mazu and etc.. In other words, there have been two opposite polities with the same name – China. Because of the outbreak of the Korean war, ROC and the USA used Moratorium in 1950s and cooperated successfully to win the support of countries attending a conference to let Chinese representation related bills be postponed debating in the UN. Ten years went by and world has been changed. Some countries supporting Moratorium originally, such as Canada, Britain and Japan, indicated to the USA they were unable to continue supporting, but also of tens new members from African and Asia emerging countries backed the bill. It had been ten years since1961, an “Important Question”, requiring a two-third majority of the General Assembly for approval, was made any proposal to change the representation of China after Chiang Kai-shek had got Kennedy the president of the USA a secretly promise of avoiding in favor of Peking. Although an “Important Question” was a success, the situation in the world political affairs was going against ROC. As Henry Alfred Kissinger’s private mainland visit went public, there was no way but accept a formula “dual representation” to placate citizens and to cope with the Albanian resolution. In October, 1971, due to the failure of Modified Important Question Resolution also proposed by the USA, ROC pronounced no more councils to attend in 26th General Assembly of the United Nations(UNGA). Subsequently, the UNGA Resolution 2758 recognized the PRC government as the sole legitimate representative to attend the UN. This was to solve the controversial Question of the Representations of China in the United Nations which last about twenty years to an end. Above all, there are three ways to dissect the ins and outs of why ROC abdicating the UN. First, understand how dual representation was moved in USA, and Nixon, Kissinger and Rogers, their attitudes and devices to the issue. Second, understand the point at issue and the situation of consultation between ROC and USA. Third, analyze what the process of counsel in ROC and observe the flexibilities in foreign policy.
    顯示於類別:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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