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|Title: ||帝國邊區的村落、族群與歷史：以屏東萬金庄為中心討論（1861-1945）;Villages, ethics and history on the border of Empire:A discussion based on Bankimshing in Ping-Tong（1861-1945）|
|Authors: ||洪維晟;Wei-Sheng Hung|
|Keywords: ||平埔原住民;萬金庄;族群遷徙論;潮汕語系;天主教;Chaozhou Dialect;Pepo-knabe;Catholic;Bankimshing;Theory of the ethnic migration|
|Issue Date: ||2009-09-22 09:31:08 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||本文所討論的主題，是南臺灣山腳地帶的社會自19 世紀中葉以後，受到政治、經濟與社會變遷之影響，出現了什麼樣的轉變；而這些轉變又有什麼樣的歷史意義。討論過程中，本文選擇以屏東萬金庄作為研究對象，藉由區域個案的觀察，探討南臺灣山腳地帶的社會結構面臨變動以及進行重組的過程。清乾隆五十五年（1790 年），清政府同意來臺平亂的將軍福康安所提出之「屯番制」構想，作為統治臺灣的策略。約自康熙末年左右，至咸豐年間，平埔原住民因政府政策的推動而逐漸陸續由原居地向東或向北「擴張」，於中央山脈的山腳地帶，建立起許多新聚落。清政府多次劃界的過程中在萬金庄一帶重疊，使得此地不僅沒有新舊區域之分，也造就了族群關係多元複雜的情況。又，1861 年天主教道明會傳教至此，並推動「教會村」的聚落模式，從土地,婚姻以及生活等各層面將教友凝聚在一起，而非教友的居民亦有自我運行的生活方式。萬金庄內部逐漸形成立六個角頭的型態，以庄內中心的一棵大榕樹作為區別教友與非教友的空間型態。進入到20 世紀以後，萬金庄在日本臺灣總督府的國家政策影響下，也開始出現多元化的發展。聚落人口的增加、近代交通的建設以及產業的革新，帶動了公共空間與公共活動的多元化，這些變化都具體的反映了山腳社會的轉型。並且透過，文字、傳媒、學界以及地方政府共同運作，與萬金庄居民的共同努力下，消彌了過去族群分類的現象，一同建立起「萬金意識」。本文筆者扣緊「長期結構史」（histore des structures；Structurgeschite）概念，選擇其已天主教二次入臺的1861 年作為研究時間的起始值至終戰後，兼採地理學為輔助學科，透過各種文獻史料的整理與分析與田野調查，以萬金庄的社會變遷為主軸，進而討論屏東平原山腳地帶的總體發展。透過本文的研究，筆者有如下三個觀點：第一、透過文獻考證與地名學的輔助，釐清了屏東平原的族群關係與聚落形成的發展，同時對「平埔原住民族群被迫遷徙」之論，提出適度修正；進而探討了萬金庄的居民結構主要是由十七世紀大放索語區的平埔原住民，以及漢人族群與排灣族所組成。第二、嘗試就「語系」為基礎，將來臺拓墾漢人分為閩籍的漳泉語系、粵籍的客家語系以及潮汕語系等人群。尤其是廣東潮汕的移民，常被學界忽視。不過，在傳統東亞貿易網絡上，潮州語系人群卻佔有重要地位，也影響臺灣的社會構成。故，以方言為分類討論漢人的族群關係，應可較貼近屏東平原當時的社會情況。第三、本文透過區域個案的觀察，釐清了山腳社會從邊區型態過渡到近代國家體制下的歷史過程，並探討了統治當局如何建立起各種統治制度，去控制這些過去被視為邊陲的區域。地方社會的多元化發展說明了社會轉型的情況。也說明了山腳地區的人群如何擺脫不同移民群的祖源認同而走向山腳社會的地緣認同。 The purpose of the study is to investigate the historical effects on the political, social and economic shifts in the foot of southern taiwanese moutains. Such a case defined et examplified by Bankimshing in Ping-Tong will show how the different aspects would reflect the structural changes in the reconstruction of Bankimshing via a case study in the area V. Qianlong 55 (1790), the Qing government consented that the establishment of indigenous guards (Tun Fun) proposed by Fu Kang'an could be served as a strategy of control in Formosa. From the late Kangxi to Xianfeng, the increase of population of Pepo-knabe is due to the governmental politics : since then, the Pepo-Knabe people moved to the Central Mount and were established in some new villages. However, the multiple demarcations of Bankimshing by Qing government overlaped the original area. This territorial planification have maked this place not only the old and the new sub-region, but also created a multi-ethnic relations with complex situations. Moreover, in 1861 Dominican Catholic missionary preached here and set the " mission village " patterns which gathered all levels of life From the land, marriage and life members rather than members of residents to self-running lifestyle. Bankimshing began gradually tob be formed via the pattern of the six corner in order to center a large banyan tree in the Shonai as the difference between Catholics and non-Catholics of the space pattern. After the 20th century, Bankimshing has opened a wide range of development. The increase of population, the construction of modern transport and industry innovation promote the public space and to the diversity of public events. these changes reflected specific social transformation of the moutain foot social pattern. Through text, media, academy and local government, all of them co-operated with the residents of Bankimshing and joined the efforts of the past to diminish the phenomenon of ethnic classification with the emergence of " Bankimshing awareness." We adopt the histore des structures to select the second entry of the Catholic Church in 1861 as the beginning of the study period until the end of the war, which can be either a provident for the auxiliary disciplines of geography, through a variety of historical, literary collation, analysis and field survey to examine the social changes and discuss the Pingtung Plain area of the overall development of the moutain foot. We concluded the following three points: first of all, through literary research and toponymical assistance,we described the formation of ethnic relations and the development of settlements of Bankimshing as the "indigenous ethnic groups were forced to move Pingpu" in theory. We put forward appropriate amendments: Bankimshing is further explored on the structure of village residents in the seventeenth century mainly by the demand Dafang Pingpu aboriginal language areas, as well as the Han Chinese ethnic groups and by the composition of the Paiwan. Secondly, we tried to dinstinguish the regional linguistic basis : Fujian pioneer of Chinese language, Guangdong Hakka native language and other languages as well as the crowd Chaoshan. Guangdong Chaozhou in particular for their immigrants are often ignored by academy. However, in the traditional East Asian trade network, Chaozhou language occupies an important position in the crowd but also the impact on Taiwan's society. Therefore, in order to discuss the Han Chinese dialects as the classification of ethnic relations, we should move closer to the Pingtung Plain prevailing social conditions. Thirdly, this study made the observation of the regional cases, the foot of the community to clarify the type of transition from the border area to the modern state system of the historical process and to explore how to establish the rule of various colonial regime to control the border is considered the last of the region,diversification of the local community that the situation of social transition. Also we showed how the foot of the region differ from the groups of migrant by group identity or by the foot of the geo-community identity.|
|Appears in Collections:||[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文|
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