藉由中國傳統慈善組織中，專門照顧收容棄、溺嬰孩的育嬰堂等相關慈善事業，在晚清面對西方基督信仰大舉進入中國後，進而開展的慈善活動，產生的競爭、排斥，甚至成為民教衝突導火線下的因應與面對，探討中國育嬰相關組織於晚清的變革所代表的歷史意義。文中利用《教務教案檔》、官方文書、當時的報章與時人的記錄，來看官方與當時仕紳面對育嬰堂一再成為教案勃興的應對。並由同治與光緒年間兩度發布上諭，要求廣興育嬰堂，來看時代的發展對育嬰堂的影響，及中國育嬰堂的轉變。 本文以江蘇作為研究範圍，探討自咸豐十年(1860)開放外國傳教士進入內地傳教，並可買賣土地，興建育嬰堂開始，一直到1900年光緒晚期借育嬰堂資源，興辦蒙養院，著手新式教育的推廣，擴大了育嬰堂事業的範圍為止，江蘇育嬰堂在教案勃興的狀態下的運作轉移與因應。其中官方態度從原先支持反教，到分層響應，中間的過程，都促使中國育嬰堂有機會積極地發揮功能。儘管晚清育嬰堂積弊叢生，但從消極收嬰，到積極防預、救貧，卻是值得稱頌與注意的；在中國社會事業史上，是重要的轉變歷程。 This essay deals with the changes of foundling asylums in late Qing Dynasty by talking about one of the traditional charity organizations for exposed children, named “Yu Ying Tang,” and how to respond to challenges from missionary charity organizations after Western Churches came to Chinese in great force. By using files about Christian massacres, official instruments, records, newspaper and literati opus, we can see how the officials and literati coped with the clashes between Christians when foundling hospices repeatedly became the direct cause of massacres. Furthermore, we can also see the influence of the imperial edict twice issued by Tongzhi and the Guangxu Dynasty during the development and change of foundling hospices. This article takes Jiangsu as its range of study. The discussion begins from 1860, when the foreign missionaries were allowed to enter inland to do missionary work, buy and sell land, leading to the construction of foundling hospitals. This lasted until 1900—the later period of GuangXu—when foundling hospital resources were exploited, kindergartens established, a new style of education popularized, and foundling hospitals expanded to a larger scope. Jiangsu foundling hospitals grew vigorously in accordance with operation shifts. The stance of some officials was anti-missionary from the outset but Hierarchal response allowed Chinese foundling hospitals to have the opportunity to display positive functions. Although there were a large number of abuses in Chinese founding hospices, they are actually worth praising for the acceptance of infants, protection given against infanticide and the rescuing of the poor. It is also an important transformational course in the history Chinese charitable enterprise.