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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4743

    Title: 鄧小平對台政策的形成背景及影響
    Authors: 焦東傑;Tung-Chieh Chiao
    Contributors: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 鄧小平;對台政策;一國兩制;Xiao-ping;Deng;one nation and two systems;policy towards Taiwan
    Date: 2007-11-21
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:31:36 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 鄧小平,1904年8月22日,生於四川省廣安縣協興鄉牌坊村,1997年2月19日,在北京逝世,享年93歲。 鄧小平在1920年夏赴法展開國勤工儉學之旅。1924年正式加入中國共產黨,1926年初離開法國前往蘇聯。1926年冬鄧小平從蘇聯回到中國後,在政治舞台上三起三落,在歷經各種磨難之後成為毛澤東之後的中共最高領導人。 鄧小平是中共對台政策的主要決策者,因此了解鄧小平的心理狀態、認知特質,以及他對中國問題的價值觀是十分重要的。回顧中共對台政策的各種建議,可以發現任何新的政策或言論,都是由鄧小平所主導。鄧小平是1978年以來 中共最有權力的領導人,鄧小平的政治權力來自於敬老尊賢、講求政治倫理的中國政治規範,以及共產黨威權統治的性格。 鄧小平的對台政策,簡單來說就是「一國兩制」的構想。鄧小平一國兩制構想發生影響的主要是周恩來的一綱四目。一國兩制與一綱四目在結構上極為接近,而實質上所包涵和要表述的意義是一國兩制。其一它們都是針對台灣統一而設想的;其二都是為著探討台灣回歸後的架構以及中央政府與台灣關係的;其三充分體現了中國共產黨對台工作兩個連續發展階段上的方針和政策,其表述的核心都是「一個國家,兩種制度」。一綱實際上強調的就是堅持一個中國的原則;四目講的就是要在一個國家中實行兩種制度。「一國兩制」的構想不僅在鄧生前影響著中共的對台政策,即使在鄧過世之後,依然是中共在制定對台政策的最高指導方針。 The ex-chairman of Mainland China, Xiao-ping, Deng, was born on August 22nd, 1904, in Pai-fang Village, Xie-xing, Guang-an County, Si-chuan Province. He passed away in Peijing at the age of 93 on February 19th , 1997. In 1920 summer, Xiao-ping, Deng went to France and trained himself as a diligent and frugal person. He joined the Chinese Communist Party (C.C.P.) in 1924. Then, he left for Russia in early 1926. After returning back to China in 1926 winter, he even had experienced three ups and downs in the political arena. Next, he endured many hardships, and became the highest leader of the C.C.P. after Ze-dong, Mao in the end. Deng was the main decision maker of the C.C.P. for policies towards Taiwan. Therefore, understanding Deng’s mental state, cognitive qualities, and his values and perspective towards problems in China is vitally important. In retrospect, we found that all new policies or statements had been led by Deng in regard of various suggestions for powerful leader in the Chinese Communist Party since 1978. Deng’s political power originated from the notion of respecting the old and honoring the wise, emphasizing the Chinese political code of ethics, and the characteristics of authoritative rule of the Chinese Communist Party(i.e., C.C.P.) Briefly speaking, Deng’s policy towards Taiwan was the idea of one nation and two systems. This idea mainly originated from the theory of one principle, four divisions that was developed by En-lai, Chou (1965). These two ideas were quite similar in structures, and the actual meaning conveyed was that of the one nation and two systems. There were three reasons in explaining this theory. First, they were formed for the specific purpose of unification with Taiwan. Second, they were formed for the purpose of exploring the structure after Taiwan’s returning to China and the relationship between the central government and Taiwan. Third, they were formed for the purpose of displaying the direction and policy of two connected developmental stages for the tasks of the C.C.P. towards Taiwan. The core statement was the same with one nation and two systems. One principle actually emphasized the insistence of one China, and four divisions are for the implementation of two systems in one nation. This idea of one nation and two systems not only affected the Chinese Communist Party’s directions of Taiwan policy while Deng was alive but continued to be the ultimate guideline of the Chinese Communist Party’s Taiwan policy after his death.
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