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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/47596


    Title: 在低開發中國家廢物堆肥系統的設計和計畫建立-以甘比亞的Banjul和Kanifing的廢物推肥系統為例。;Establishment of Planning and Design Principle of Waste Composting System for Low Developing Countries – Cases of Composting System Design for Banjul City and Kanifing in The Gambia
    Authors: 白冠群;Omar S. Bah
    Contributors: 國際環境永續發展碩士在職專班國際專班
    Keywords: 甘比亞;塞內加爾;廢棄物收集系統;Banjul;Composting System;Waste Composting System;Kanifing
    Date: 2011-07-25
    Issue Date: 2012-01-05 12:25:38 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 研究背景:甘比亞西邊臨大西洋,其餘各面國界與塞內加爾接壤,國土狹長 (長寬約400公里 × 30公里) 面積約為11,300平方公里,為非洲最小國家。甘比亞氣候乾燥,乾季長達7個月,僅六月到十月為雨季,降雨量850 – 1200 mm。無妥善之廢棄物收集系統及標準掩埋場,造成廢棄物隨意棄置為本國環境污染問題之一。本研究之目標場址為Banjul市與Kanifing都會區,目前此兩都市各有一座廢棄物露天棄置場,而甘比亞也無任何有系統的堆肥場,僅有居民將廢棄之蔬果或菜餚將之簡易堆置製造自己農地用的堆肥。 研究目的:本研究主要目的如下。 一、 針對缺乏廢棄物產量等基本數據之情形,提出可推估廢棄物數量之方法。 二、 藉用目標場址之堆肥場設計及操作條件設定之範例,提供甘比亞政府於廢棄物堆肥有關政策之參考。 三、 探討為低發展國家設計出經濟而實用的堆肥場之可行性。 研究方法:本研究主要參考世界銀行公布有關甘比亞於某特定年份之廢棄物產量、人口數、國內生產所得 (GDP) 等有限之資料,並參考文獻有關應用GDP及人口成長率與都市廢棄物產量關係之資料,提出推估Banjul市與Kanifing都會區自2012年至2021年 (本研究堆肥場操作期間)的廢棄物數量及性質。堆肥場之設計流程係針對甘比亞的經濟及人力素質,設計可實用的堆肥方法及操作條件。於投資經濟分析方面,採用「本益比 (Benefit-cost ratio)」為評估指標。 研究結果:本研究根據文獻所顯示都市垃圾年產量與GDP具有一定的正相關性,探討甘比亞之都市垃圾產量與其國內生產所得 (GDP)之關係模式,推估Banjul市與Kanifing都會區自2012年至2021年之廢棄物產量,並根據推估之廢棄物量及其有機類成份之百分比,提出一座設計容量為130 公噸/年之堆肥廠設計流程及操作條件。因投資及操作成本相當低,經本益比 (Benefit-cost ratio) 分析結果為1.55 ,顯示具有投資效益。 Study Background: The Gambia is the smallest country (~ 11,300 km2) on the African continent, lying between latitude 13 and 14 degrees North, and 17 and 12 degrees West. It consists of a narrow strip of land some 400 km long and about 30 km wide on both sides of The Gambia River. It is bordered to the north, east and south by the Republic of Senegal and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The population is about 1.3 million with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The country has a Sahelian climate, characterized by a long dry season (November to May) and a short wet season (June to October). Rainfall ranges from 850 to 1200 mm. Environmental pollution caused by solid waste is a common phenomenon in the urban areas mainly due to irregular waste collection services and wanton open-dumping. There are no sanitary landfills and waste is dumped uncontrollably at official dumpsites such as the Bakoteh Dumpsite in the Kanifing Municipality and the Mile II Dumpsite in the outskirts of Banjul City. There have only simple composting heaps of vegetable scraps from the kitchen, or raked leaves for practical purpose of the residents to enhance farm soil capacity. However, there are no qualified composting facilities. Objectives: The major objectives of this study are: 1. To establish a method with no proper data for analysis especially without waste generation rate. 2. To provide the planning and design information of composting including operation criteria for the policy decision-makers of The Gambia in waste management. 3. To Design an economical and practicable composting system suitable for the low developing country. Research Methods: Composting design conditions under insufficient data on waste generation rates were overcome by multiple approaches using both direct methods of data acquisition from direct data from published and unpublished reports and documents from national and local governments. Waste reports from regular waste treatment facilities. The indirect method employed Population (MSW generation per capita/day), Economic growth using GDP and Reference to a similar country. The Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) was also applied to evaluate the viability of the project. Results: According to the literature of some studies the correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation permit prediction of the total amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) for European countries and the USA. This study has correlated the annual waste generation and the corresponding figures of the gross domestic product (GDP), and demonstrates that the use of GDP figures and population growth data can predict the MSW generation rate in the Gambia. By the analysis of GDP vs. waste generation, the design of a composting facility for the target areas, Banjul City and Kanifing Municipality, is provide in this study. This study uses the indicator of benefit-cost ratio (BCR) during the service life of 10 years that is expressed in discounted present values to evaluate the investment performance for the proposed composting project and shows that the project can be accepted in investment.
    Appears in Collections:[國際永續發展在職專班] 博碩士論文

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