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|Authors: ||林琰輝;Yean-Huei Lin|
|Issue Date: ||2009-09-22 09:31:59 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||摘 要 毛澤東執政時期在「勞武結合」的原則下，組建亦工亦農亦兵的勞動大軍。這就是毛澤東再三堅持的人民戰爭，將軍事武裝與經濟生產結合在一起。到了六○年代中期，中共開始擁有核子武器之後，守勢戰略構想呈現出兩種極端，一是人民戰爭，一是核子嚇阻。不過在中共未擁有確實可靠的核子反擊能力前，人民戰爭則是主要的軍事戰略。 自一九八○年以來，中共亦開始修正傳統的人民戰爭構想，而提出現代條件下的人民戰爭。此外由於已擁有「第二擊」（second strike）能力，也開始調整守勢戰略，在這種構想下，中共將不是完全採取誘敵深入的焦土抗戰政策，在某些精華地區及政經中心，中共將主力部隊配置在邊界前沿地帶，從事寸土必爭的陣地防禦戰，甚至可能主動越界出擊制敵機先。 一九八一年九月間中共在華北張家口舉行的軍事大演習，就展現出中共的戰略企圖。在此一構想下，中共優先發展配備高精密武器的現代化陸、海、空三軍。中共海軍也逐漸改變以往單純的沿海防禦（Coast defence）角色，由中共海軍三大艦隊不斷加強遠航演訓來看，顯然是準備走向大洋海軍的發展，並試圖在海權戰略方面採取擴張路線。 波灣戰爭爆發後，中共軍方深受震撼，其後的軍事事務革命思潮，對中共領導人的軍事思維更造成強大衝擊，認定高技術已成為戰爭勝負的主要關鍵。因此，中共為確保能夠打贏現代技術特別是高技術條件下的局部戰爭，其備戰思維已從以往的全面備戰向高技術條件下局部戰爭的備戰轉變，並將其軍事鬥爭重點依序置於東南沿海、南海、中印邊境上，軍事發展的重點為海、空軍，同時並提昇陸軍整體作戰能力，增強二砲威懾力量及建立快速反應部隊，以因應高技術條件下局部戰爭的需求。 Abstract When China in the time of Mao’s rule, under the principle of the “Combination of Worker and Fighter,” he created the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army of China. Putting military armament and economical production together, this was the ideas of the Peoples’ Warfare that Mao insisted the most. In the mid-60s after the People’s Republic of China (PRC) possessing nuclear weapons, it came out with two extreme defending strategies; one was the Peoples Warfare and the other, the nuclear deterrence. Before the nuclear possibility is accountable for striking back when under attack, however, the Peoples Warfare is still the main military strategy for the PRC. In 1980s, the PRC has begun to revise its thinking of the Peoples Warfare, and has brought up a new type of peoples’ warfare under modern conditions. Because of the possession of the ability of second strike, the PRC has also altered its defending strategy. In stead of executing the policy of scorched earth which lured the enemy to go deep into its territory, the PRC has deployed the main units at the advance position in some essence areas and geo-political centers. The thinking is that the PRC not only able to commit the area defense, but also actively to launch an attack before the enemy. This strategical attempt was revealed entirely when the PRC held a huge military exercise in Jang Jiako on September 1981. It showed that the PRC have the priority of equipping highly sophisticated weapons in the Army, Navy, and Air force. Similarly, the PRC’s has gradually changed its traditionally pure coast defense role. Due to the North, East, and the South Sea Fleets of the PRC constantly increasing its high sea long-distance navigation exercises, obviously the PRC is well preparing to develop an ocean-going navy, and attempt to assume an expanding course in sea power strategy. After the breaking of the Persian Gulf War, the PRC’s military was deeply shocked and its military affair revolution was thereafter affected. To the greater extent, the military thinking of the PRC’s leaders was facing the formidable lashes, and hence taking high tech as the key for winning a war. To win local war under high-tech conditions in terms of modern technology, therefore, the PRC’s has put their military fighting emphasis on the southeast coast, South Sea, and border of China-India according to its priority. Now, the Navy and the Air force are its military development priority. In the meantime, the seek to upgrade the Army’s overall operational capability; enhance the deterrent force of The Secondary Artillery Force, and build up a rapid response force, in order to cope with the needs of local war under high-tech conditions.|
|Appears in Collections:||[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文|
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