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    题名: 清代徽州鹽商子弟教育研究(1644~1840);A Study of Children Education of Huizhou Salt Merchants in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1840)
    作者: 田聖山;Sheng-Shen Tien
    贡献者: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    关键词: 徽州;鹽商;子弟教育;Huizhou;Children Education;Salt Merchants
    日期: 2006-05-22
    上传时间: 2009-09-22 09:32:01 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 中文提要內容: 徽州人經商,以鹽業居首。最富庶的當屬在揚州的徽籍鹽商,既是兩淮鹽商的主力,也是徽商的中堅,縱橫於兩淮鹽場,鹽產最多,因此資本雄厚,所上繳的鹽課,是政府所有鹽課收入中最大宗的。徽州鹽商在清代的獨盛,得利於明朝成化年間(1465-1487)的鹽政改革,使鹽商直接在鹽產地納銀取鹽,使位居鹽場近便的徽州鹽商打破了晉、陝鹽商的壟斷地位,終至取而代之。 中國長期將社會劃分為士、農、工、商四民階層,士居首位,受人敬重,商人處在四民之末。自明朝以來,隨著商人經濟力量的增長,商人們極力想辦法擺脫低下階層的處境。許多放棄功名仕進而從事商業的士人們,助長徽州商鹽在博覽群書,提昇文化知識的風氣,也強化經營和思辨的能力。 興盛的宗族教育和嚴格的家庭教育,為徽州宗族和徽州社會培養一批批的專門人才,卓越的經營成就和良好的商譽,為徽州鹽商帶來巨大的利潤和皇帝的寵信。不論是在徽州的本地還是在異地,徽州鹽商出資助修府學、縣學等官學,斥資籌設家學、族學、義學、書院;投身圖書事業,興建藏書樓,廣泛的蒐集典籍。在徽商影響下、欣欣向榮的刻書業,則大量刊刻四書五經、政府律令戒令、科舉教輔用珍本書籍,為子弟提供閱讀工具。家族社會聲望的高低和家族利益的維護,依賴著子孫能入仕為官,以庇護家業;而徽州鹽商子弟的確也不負宗族期望,留下了許許多多政治、經濟、文化方面的傑出人才。 Abstract Huizhou people were famous for their salt business. The salt merchants of Huizhou were not only the richest people in Huizhou but also the major force of salt merchants in Yangzhou, the major salt market in Qing time. Their capital was abundant and the salt tax they paid was the major income of the government in salt tax. The reason that Huizhou salt merchants became the most distinguished in salt business was the reform of salt regulations in the period of Chenghua (1465-1487) of the Ming dynasty. In that reform, the salt merchants were allowed to buy salt at the area of salt production. Since Huizhou was close to the area of salt production, Huizhou salt merchants were able to break the monopoly of salt business by the salt merchants from Shanxi and Shaanxi, and then replace them in this field. The Chinese society had long been divided into four classes -- intellectuals, peasants, laborers, and merchants, while intellectuals, enjoying the respect by others, were placed on the top and merchants on the bottom. From Ming Dynasty on, with the increasing wealth, merchants had done their best to improve their status. Many intellectuals who gave up their official degrees and official career switched their interest to business and assisted the Huizhou salt merchants in reading various kinds of books, promoting the atmosphere of refined culture, and strengthening their management of business. The strict and diligent clan education and family education in Huizhou had brought out many professionists who were able to run good business, to produce good reputation, to earn huge profit, and to win the favor of the imperial government. No matter in their home towns or in other cities they lived, Huizhou salt merchants donated money in building various kinds of schools and in establishing personal libraries for their huge collections. Under the influence of those merchants, the printing industry became prosperous and published ancient classics, governmental laws and regulations, and many good books related to civil service examination for those merchants’ descendants. The official career of their descendants would guarantee the continuity of their family reputation and the protection of family property. In fact, their descendants did not disappoint the expectation of their clan and had become distinguished in the fields of politics, commerce, and culture.
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