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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4767


    Title: 陳毅之研究;The Research on Chen Yi
    Authors: 黃玉芬;Yu-fen Huang
    Contributors: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 陳毅;文革與外交部;元帥外交家;Ministry of Foreign Affairs;Cultural Revolution;Chen Yi;Diplomatist of the Marshal
    Date: 2007-07-10
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:32:05 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 陳毅是中共「十大元帥」之一。由於他的國學基礎極佳,平素喜歡寫詩作文章,因此有「元帥詩人」之美譽。而陳毅在中共建國不久之後擔任外交部部長,所以他又有一享譽全國美稱——「元帥外交家」。 陳毅本想走上文藝青年的道路,弱冠之年考上了公費留學法國「勤工儉學」,因而接觸了「馬克思主義」、「社會主義」等思想,在被迫中斷學業押解回國後,他透過留法同學的介紹,在1923年正式成為中國共產黨的一員。 入黨不久後的陳毅,在與國軍的鬥爭中歷經無數次戰火的考驗,焠鍊出視死如歸、臨危不懼沙場戰將的膽識,因而在中共建國的戰鬥過程中得到毛澤東、周恩來委以重任,在土地革命時期,參與領導創建和保衛井岡山革命根據地的鬥爭,並在中共主力軍長征後,留在南方堅持了三年極其艱苦的游擊戰爭。在對日抗爭時期任新四軍代軍長率部挺進江南抗日前線,繼續領導華中軍民進行「反掃蕩」、「反投降」的鬥爭。國共內戰開始後,他負責指揮華東戰場,任華東野戰軍司令員。1948年夏天,他擔任中原軍區第一副司令員,同劉伯承、鄧小平一起率中原野戰軍參加淮海戰役(國軍稱為徐蚌會戰)為中共創下彪炳戰功。中共建國後陳毅是為上海市首任市長,領導對舊上海的改造和經濟恢復工作,創造軍政全勝的紀錄。1954年,陳毅奉調北京擔任副總理、1955年獲得中共建國「十大元帥」之殊榮後,進一步擔負起中華人民共和國外交部部長的重責大任,陪同周恩來總理出訪亞非等國家,開拓國際外交空間。「文革」開始後,他以敢發言抨擊「文革」的錯誤,成為當權派視為眼中釘「二月逆流」的「黑將軍」,但是他不畏外交部造反派的批鬥,為在文革中的外交部抵擋一陣又一陣的風暴。1969年他在中共第九次全國代表大會上仍當選為中央委員,並在毛澤東、周恩來的安排下參與國際形勢問題的研究,做出打開中美冰凍關係的建議。 1972年1月6日,陳毅因罹患腸癌病逝於北京。1月10日下午,舉行陳毅追悼會時,毛澤東突然臨時決定參加,在哀樂聲中,毛澤東清淚兩行握著陳毅妻子的手說:「陳毅是個好人、是個好同志」這一破例舉動,不僅表達了難得的戰友之情,也是對陳毅一生最好的肯定。 Chen Yi was one of the grand ten marshals of Chinese Communists. Due to his profound knowledge in Chinese literature, he got his character as a Poet of the Marshal. Not long after the Chinese Communists had established the People’s Republic of China, Chen Yi became the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Therefore, he had another national wide laureate—Diplomatist of the Marshal. Originally, Chen Yi planed to engage in literature and art creation. But at the age of twenty, he got the qualification to study abroad at public expense in France. It made him get a lot of chances to know about Marxism and Socialism, and so on. When he was forced to break off his school and be sent back under escort to China, he soon became a member of Chinese Communists in 1923. Soon after Chen Yi joined the Chinese Communists, he experienced a lot of battles with national troops. These experiences made him cultivate his uniquely revolutionary personality of courage and will. Thus, he was charged with grand responsibilities by Mao Ze-dong and Zhou En-lai during the process of establishing the People’s Republic of China. During the Land Revolution, Chen Yi guarded their revolutionary base and stayed in the south to have extremely hard hit-and-run attack for 3 years. During the war against Japanese militarism, Chen Yi led the New Forth Troops to push forward the front-line around the south of the Yangtze River. Afterward, he continuously led the armed force and the civilian population to go on the conflicts of anti-sweep and anti-surrender. After the Chinese civil war begun, Chen Yi, Deng Xiao-ping and Liu Bo-cheng led their troops to win the battle in the Huai River area. Chen Yi was the first mayor of Shanghai after the People’s Republic of China had been established. He reformed the old city and restored the economy and created a splendid record. In 1954, Chen Yi was transferred to Beijing to bore the vice premier. In 1955, he was awarded one of the grand ten marshals of the People’s Republic of China and then bore the Minister of Foreign Affairs and kept company with Zhou En-lai to visit some Asian and African countries to develop their international diplomacy. After the Cultural Revolution had begun, the authorities were not fond of Chen Yi’s speech and ideas, but he was not frightened. He warded off a lot of conflicts instead. In 1969, he was still elected to be a central commissioner and be arranged under Mao Ze-dong and Zhou En-lai’s will to join the research of the international conditions. Chen Yi suggested open up the frozen diplomatic relationship between the Untied States and China. On the 6th January 1972, Chen Yi died of cancer in Beijing. When his funeral was held on the 10th Jan , Mao Ze-dong appeared suddenly. In the music of lament, Mao was in tears and said to Chen Yi’s wife: ”He was both a good man and a good comrade.” Mao’s exceptional act not only conveyed their friendship of battle companion but also the best praise for Chen Yi’s whole life.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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