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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4776

    Title: 晚明江南家樂之探究;The Study of Family Trupes of Ming Dyansty
    Authors: 張雅綾;Ya-ling Chang
    Contributors: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 文人戲曲;家樂;家伶;dramas designed by literati;family trupes;performers of family trupes
    Date: 2008-01-03
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:32:20 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 晚明江南是一個商業市鎮繁榮,人文薈萃,文風鼎盛的地方,文人將經世濟民的期望轉至文化休閒活動,促使著當代戲曲文化迸發燦爛的火花。當時的戲曲在禁令逐漸廢弛、市鎮經濟發達的情況下,不管是王公貴族、文士縉紳、販夫走卒、青樓妓女們皆熱衷觀劇,因此在宮廷中有宮廷演劇;在外的會館勾欄有職業戲班;而在一般文士縉紳家中則有家宅演劇。本文即是要針對當時文士縉紳所蓄養家樂演劇情形進行探究。 南戲在嘉靖流行的有弋陽、海鹽、崑山等諸腔,崑山腔至魏良輔作改良,音調流麗婉轉,後經由梁辰魚搬至舞台演出成功,自此而文士家樂競相使用崑腔,形成以吳門為宗情形。而文士縉紳投入戲曲行列,參與戲曲創作,多以傳奇來製作,當時較為知名的劇作家如沈璟、湯顯祖等,被後代學者所宗,形成吳江與臨江諸派別。這些劇作家的創作各有所偏重,為當時戲曲的發展注入活水。 晚明江南的家樂組織在分布上以蘇州、松江、常州、鎮江、應天、杭州、嘉興、湖州江南八府最多,而紹興也有不少家樂主人。這些家樂主人家伶的來源,最多是從蘇州當地購買的,主要原因是乃是家樂中多盛行崑曲,而崑曲發源地集來自蘇州,為求免去咬字發音訓練,故多從吳地選取;其他來源則包括家樂主人相互贈與及名妓的納娶。家伶在十歲多進入主人家中,隨著主人失勢、明清易代與主人的心情等因素,多面臨到解散離去情境,所以在家伶出路探究上,發現他們多流落四方,加入職業戲班成為職業伶人;或者轉而成為其他家樂的戲曲教師;但也有一些女伶選擇他嫁或遁入空門者。其遭遇處境大多不佳。 在家樂搬演舞台上,一般都會在主人園林中的亭台樓閣作堂會演劇,而較為講究的家樂主人還會建置樓船畫舫,在其上飲酒作樂,觀賞戲曲演出。當然隨著主人四處的交友活動,也有即興觀劇的情形。至於演出的曲目選擇,一般家樂受限於場地,武打戲較少,才子佳人劇作搬演較多,吉祥慶壽的戲齣也相當受到歡迎,若主人有新劇作出現時,通常其家樂以演出全本戲為主,否則多作折子戲演出。晚明的家樂在道具及舞台布置上多所創新,在角色分配上漸趨固定,共有十一至十二角色,家樂管理上也相當嚴格。 主人與家伶間除了上下主僕關係外,也常存在著曖昧不明情況,有「龍陽癖」者愛少年歌童;而姿色貌美女伶常成為主人姬妾,為主人附屬品。家伶在主人家經過主人親自指導與所聘請曲師的調教,在聲調、咬字、儀態各方面皆有所長近,較為優秀者變成為主人家當家生旦,這些有名家伶也受到當時戲曲評論家的欣賞。隨著主人參加集會結社,以及曲宴盛會,家樂也會跟著做演出。在當時社會中,家樂的確是特別的一隻戲曲隊伍,在戲曲文化傳承中扮演關鍵性角色。 Jiangnan was a place with prosperous business towns, and a wealthy of elites and cultures in late Ming Dynasty. After converting the expectation from ruling the country efficiently and taking good care of the people into cultural and leisure activities, literati precipitated the development of modern drama. Accompanied by the rescinded bans and the booming economy in towns, dramas have become popular which nobles and royalties appreciated in palaces; literati and prestigious people relished in residences; the masses and prostitutes enjoyed in teahouses or bawdy-houses. This study is mainly exploring the family troupes owned by literati and prestigious people. Southern dramas which were popular during Chia Ching in Ming Dynasty include Yiyang opera, Haiyan opera, Kunshan opera etc. Plenty of family troupes competed to perform with Kunshanqiang owing to the amelioration of Kunshanqiang(崑山腔) with agreeable and fluent tune making by Wei Liang-Fu and the successful performance on the stage held by Liang Chen-Yu. Besides, literati and prestigious people usually wrote for the stage with Chuanji which were divided into Wujiang group and Linjiang group. Meanwhile, the most famous dramatists involved Chen Jing and Tang Xian-Zu who were followed by sequential literati. Family troupes mainly spread to Suzhou, Songjiang, Changzhou, Zhenjiang, Yingtian, Hangzhou, Jiaxing and Huzhou. Most of the actors of family troupes originated from Suzhou because it was the cradle of Kun opera which was the most popular opera among family troupes. Other actors were from the presentation between the owners of family troupes or the marrying with the courtesans. Actors in their adolescence entered the family troupes often confronted the situation of disbandment due to the downfallen statuses of their owners and the coming of Qing Dynasty. With these factors, the actresses were forced to look for their own way to survive, so some of them executed in professional drama troupes while others chose to be a nun in solitude or got married. The stages where family troupes were held were commonly in the pavilion in the residences of the troupe owners. Some owners even built their own boats with delicate decoration for the purpose of appreciating the dramas. Moreover, restricted by the measurement of the stage, the topics of the drama usually focused on romance or the celebration of someone’s birthday rather than on action. There were also innovations in properties and arrangement of stage. There were ambiguous relationship between the owners and the actors such as owners loved actors who were only children or teenagers. Furthermore, actresses with attractive appearance often became the concubines of the owners. At that time, family troupes were undoubtedly not only special organization of drama and but also played crucial part in passing down the culture of drama.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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