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|Authors: ||徐嘉惠;Chia-Hui Hsu|
|Issue Date: ||2009-09-22 09:32:22 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||中國傳統一妻多妾的家庭制度中，強調「子嗣至上」，妻妾莫不以生育為畢生的職志。在這種情形下，必也有一些文人並非是「正室」所生，而是「妾」或「婢」所生的庶子。這些人在明代整體文人社群中，所佔的比例不低，且不乏出類拔萃，對國家社會做出具體貢獻。但歷來有關明代家庭史的研究，未有以周全的史料針做單獨的探討。本文因此將以明代文集，輔以小說、法律、地方志，探討明代的庶出文人在法律、社會、家庭中的地位、與家人的情感互動、在國家社會上的發展，並藉以了解明代的家庭狀況。 庶子長久大量存在的主因，不只因應中國傳統續嗣的原因，尚包括妾欲提升自己的地位而努力生育。庶子在明代的小說中的形象，常是卑鄙愚昧、不學無術，小說必定是反映著當時的社會評價。然而我們探求於真實的史料，竟然發現優秀的庶子為數亦不少。顯示一般人對「庶子」的看法太過狹窄，應以更寬廣的角度來了解庶子。庶子的法律地位，除了在析分家產方面，其他如蔭襲制度、婚姻的選擇等，其地位低於嫡子。明代社會因為受到自古對庶子的負面評價，庶子的社會地位因而不高。庶子的家庭地位則須視其在家中所扮演的角色而定。若是嫡母無法生育子嗣，嫡母便十分重視庶子，其家庭地位因此而提升。相反的，倘若嫡母能生育自己的孩子，庶子的家庭地位則較低落。 庶出文人在與家人的互動上，通常面臨較複雜艱困的人事與環境。在與母親的互動上，嫡母是否生育子嗣常是影響母子互動的關鍵因素。嫡母在無法生育的情形下，會將庶出文人據為己有，使得庶出文人與生母的情感疏離。嫡母本身若有生育子嗣，比較容易有排斥庶子的情形。父親看待諸子，並不因嫡庶身分而有差別待遇，而是以諸子自身的努力與成就為主。在與手足方面的互動，則受嫡母的態度影響。庶出文人在談論婚姻時，社會上士人家庭擇婿的標準仍對其「庶出」身分較排斥，有的因而要求「入贅」，或同樣以「庶出」的女兒予以婚配。 庶出文人自小便明白自己地位的低落，因此努力認真苦讀考上功名，才能改善自己庶出的身分。在他們的身上也發現「堅定」的特質，面對政治上的迫害、生命的危險、輿論的攻擊，仍堅持自己的理想。也因生長在關係複雜的人事環境中，使得他們習於察言觀色、忍耐和等待，展現出一種「圓融」的特質。另有一部分的庶出文人，因為仕途不順或懷才不遇，則以「狂涓」的特質來抒發自己內心的不平。許多的庶出文人在學術、文學上努力創作，在國家、社會之中默默耕耘。面對艱困不平等的環境，他們依然勇敢的往前邁進。世人當以更寬廣的角度視之，而非以狹小的框架侷限對庶子的看法。 The traditional Chinese family system ”A man have a wife and some concubines” emphasis that 「Having sons is the most important thing」. The whole life ambition of wives and concubines is to produce children. In this conditions , there are some scholars born from concubines and maidservants , not from wives .These men are not a handful of the scholars in Ming Dynasty and they are outstanding in the community and country . The past studies about history of the family in Ming Dynasty never use full source materials to research this topic alone , therefore , this research will discuss the scholars born from concubines in Ming Dynasty including the legal standing , social and family position , interaction of family emotions , development in community and country , to understand the family condition in Ming Dynasty . The main reason of many sons born from concubines existing for a long time not only is the traditional Chinese have a son to carry on the family name , but also is the concubines want to raise her position by produced hard . The image of the sons born from concubines is ignoble , foolish , unlearned and incapable in Ming Dynasty’s novel . The novel must reflect social evaluation in Ming Dynasty , but we find so many outstanding sons born from concubines by finding out the true source materials . It shows the viewpoints on the sons born from concubines of people is too narrow , so we should understand them by more wide viewpoints . The law position of the son born from concubines is lower than the son born from wives in the canon of inheritance , the choice of marriage except distributing property . The social position of the son born from concubines is low because they are effected by the past bad evaluation in Ming Dynastic . His family position depends on playing the role of the family .The son born from concubines would be valued by the Dyi-mu who have no sons , and his family position would be raised . Oppositely his family position would be lower if his Dyi-mu have sons . The scholars born from concubines usually face more hard and complicated personal matters and environments in the interaction between he and his family . The key factor that effect the interaction between sons and mothers is that whether Dyi-mu have sons , so Dyi-mu reject the son born from concubines easily if Dyi-mu have sons . Dyi-Mu kept the scholar born from concubines for her own if she have no son . Dyi-Mu would like to replace the role of mother and making the scholar boned from concubines to keep Sheng-Mu at a distance . Fathers regard his sons by their striving and achievements , not their status or position . The interaction of brothers would be effected by Dyi-mu，s point of view . The scholars born from concubines would be rejected easily when the scholar family choose a son-in-law . Some scholars born from concubines would be required to become a son-in-law who lives in the wife’s home and assumes the role of a son , or married daughters born from concubines . The scholars born from concubines understand their lower position when they were children , therefore they learn hard to get scholarly honor on official rank to improve their position .The firm feature is found in the sons born from concubines when they are persecuted in politics , or in danger and are attacked by opinion on public affairs . They would hold firmly to the truth . They are used to closely observe other people’s words and expressions , to keep patience , to wait , to show a feature “cunning”, because they grow up in the complexity personal connections . Some scholars born from concubines express a voice of protest by the pretentious feature , because they go non-smooth in official career . There are many scholars born from concubines to produce hard in literature and academia. They pay quietly for the country and the social. They still get ahead bravely when they face difficult and unfair environment . People should have a wide viewpoint to see the sons born from concubines , not with a narrow viewpoint .|
|Appears in Collections:||[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文|
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