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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/47792


    Title: 新刻的石像──王文興與同世代現代主義作家及作品研究;Newly Carved Statues: A Study of Wang Wen-hsing and His Contemporary Modernist Writers and Their Works
    Authors: 洪珊慧;San-hui Hung
    Contributors: 中國文學研究所
    Keywords: 現代主義;王文興;白先勇;歐陽子;陳若曦;郭松棻;王禎和;Modernism;Wang Wen-hsing;Pai Hsien-yung;Ou-Yang Tzu;Chen Jo-hsi;Kuo Sung-fen;Wang Chen-ho
    Date: 2011-07-28
    Issue Date: 2012-01-05 14:02:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 台灣戰後重要的現代主義小說家於六○年代嶄露頭角,其代表作並成為台灣文學經典化過程中的重要作品。而王文興持續創作不綴,亦被視為體現現代主義文學最為徹底的創作者,本文遂以「王文興與同世代現代主義作家及作品」為範疇進行研究,將王文興與同世代現代主義作家,如白先勇、歐陽子、陳若曦、郭松棻、王禎和等人的作品,作一「對話」參照研究,突顯王文興與同世代作家在台灣現代小說發展里程中的創新與時代意義。 本文第二章討論王文興《家變》與白先勇《孽子》中的父子關係、家與個人自由的追求以及對於內心「真實」世界的追求,並探討歐陽子《秋葉》裡的母女卅母子關係。現代主義作家透過文學創作來探究真實世界,企圖表現人性的複雜性與多面性,挑戰傳統既定的社會道德與倫理秩序。對於王文興、白先勇與歐陽子等現代主義小說家來說,文學的價值在於描述人性的永恆特質,他們勇於挑戰傳統,企圖挖掘出全面而真實的人生,不但超越了傳統寫實主義的文學框架與想像,也突破了五○年代以來主導台灣文壇的戰鬥文藝和反共懷鄉小說題材的侷限性,走向當代另一種「新」的文學藝術創作之路。 第三章探析台灣現代主義文學中的「現代」與「傳統卅古典」的關係,以往論者認為台灣現代主義作家追求創新,一味向西方學習,摒棄傳統與古典文學。事實上,王文興與白先勇不僅於古典文學中汲取創作的思維,在其作品中也可見受古典文學影響的痕跡與脈絡。這群大多畢業於台大外文系、赴美留學的作家們,除了學習西方現代文學的精華與技巧外,亦有深厚中國古典文學與藝術文化的根柢。 第四章探討王文興與同世代現代主義作家對於現代小說語言文字的思索與策略。因對五四以來的白話文不滿意,他們盡可能地對現行的小說語言反思,並進行小說語言的精煉與再創造。關於小說語言美學的經營策略,一是打造文字的詩境,另一則是鍛接文言與白話。王文興、郭松棻皆著重文體的詩意化,藉由閱讀西方現代主義經典作品,以及翻譯的文體,西化的句式與傳統舊學的文字根柢,對於他們追尋現代小說文體與語言,有所啟發。 第五章探討小說語言的特殊表現。王文興與白先勇小說中的南腔北調、王禎和作品的眾聲喧嘩,呈現了台灣社會多元流動的語言;而郭松棻小說純粹詩化的語言中夾雜的台語與日語,也訴說了長期被迫留居異鄉,一個知識份子心靈深處的精神私語。而王文興與王禎和對於小說語言符號的創新與實驗企圖,可視為台灣文壇的語言雙傑卅雙絕。他們嘗試跳脫一般語言文字的表現模式,小說文字猶如藝術鍛鍊,不僅要鍊其「精要」,還要創新突破以達到最佳藝術效果。有時文字以黑體或粗體字形放大、堆疊重覆文字、空格與留白、注音符號、英文字母的運用……等各種「異質」化文字的方式,強調語言文字表象形式的精確度以展現效果,並講究小說的聲調節奏與音樂性。 第六章以「城市離散.在地根著」分論白先勇與王文興筆下的城市與台灣在地觀察。從《台北人》到《紐約客》,城市之於白先勇的小說,除了反映典型的「現代」經驗,白先勇將人們的流離(out of place)與離散(diaspora)之感,作了最佳詮釋。《家變》猶如一部記憶之書,將五○年代的台北生活一一呈現,王文興刻意以生活細節的擬真,營造出台灣戰後初期的生活樣貌和社會氛圍。而《背海的人》外省漂泊與台灣地理空間的交互作用,值得探究。本文藉由論述《背海的人》,對現代主義與鄉土的複雜性提出辯證。 王文興與同世代現代主義作家們,試圖在六○年代官方長期控制而形成封閉僵化的文學環境中,走出一條新的創作道路,並與世界文學產生對話。這些作家與其作品,成為戰後台灣現代主義文學的最初典範。王文興與其同世代的作家們,將中文敘事語言的藝術推向一種理想境界,突破現有白話文的框架,創作他們那個世代的特殊小說美學。他們對台灣文學的貢獻,不僅為六○年代台灣現代主義文學的起程碑,經過時間的淬煉,與對文學創作的堅持與實踐,其文學成就實有里程碑的指標意義。 The major post-war modernist writers in Taiwan first emerged in the 1960s as their work became a growing influence on the Taiwan literary scene. Among these writers Wang Wen-hsing, in his dedicated adherence to the craft, can perhaps be regarded as a representative of the movement. This dissertation, entitled Wang Wen-hsing and His Contemporaries in the Modernist Movement, focuses on a study of the works of Pai Hsien-yung, Ou-Yang Tzu, Chen Jo-hsi, Kuo Sung-fen, and Wang Chen-ho, alongside those of Wang in an effort to demonstrate their creative contribution to the development of modern literature in Taiwan. Chapter 2 investigates the father-son relationship, the conflict between family and personal freedom, and the pursuit of reality in Wang Wen-hsing’s Family Catastrophe and Pai Hsien-yung’s Crystal Boys. The relationship between mother and sons/daughters in Ou Yang-tze’s Autumn Leaf is also discussed. In their works modernist writers probe into reality to present the complexity and multiple dimensions of humanity and to challenge the conventional rules of morality and ethics. For these three modernist writers, the value of literature is to present human nature. They challenge the traditional point of view by exposing reality and in so doing transcend the scope and imagination of conventional realism to open up a new window in literary creation in Taiwan after the 1950s, an era that was dominated largely by military and anti-communist writing. Chapter 3 explores the relationship between the idea of “modern”in the modernist movement and classical Chinese literature. Contrary to the common view that these modernist writers indiscriminately accepted Western literary ideas while abandoning the classical Chinese literary tradition, Wang and Pai not only draw heavily from the latter to nourish their creativity but also show clear evidence of classical Chinese literary traditions in their works. That is to say, these writers, most of whom received their training in Western literary techniques at the National Taiwan University and in the United States, retain a deep-rooted connection to the classical Chinese literary and artistic heritage. The opinions and strategies of Wang and his fellow writers on the language of literary modernism are discussed in Chapter 4. Dissatisfied with vernacular Chinese after the May Fourth Movement, they sought to revitalize the written word in their works through the use of poetic expressions and sentence structures of classical Chinese. Both Wang Wen-hsing and Kuo Sung-fen employed poetic methods in their writing. From their reading of modern western literary masterpieces, from the translations of these classics, from sentence patterns in Western languages as well as their own background in classical Chinese literature, they found the inspiration to reanimate the language and style of their writings. Chapter 5 focuses on the presentation of language patterns in the works. The use of dialects from the various provinces of China in Wang’s and Pai’s works, and the multiple voices in Wang Chen-ho’s writing all demonstrate the rich linguistic diversity present in Taiwan at the time. Moreover, the mixture of Taiwanese and Japanese in the poetic language of Kuo’s works testifies to the intimately heartfelt monologue of an intellectual living in prolonged exile. On the other hand, Wang Wen-hsing and Wang Chen-ho attempt to rise above tradition through the use of such stylistic innovations as bold type, repetition, blank spaces, phonetic symbols and letters of the English alphabet in the texts of their works to achieve new heights of artistic creation and to express the musicality of their language. Chapter 6 studies the description of cities and Taiwan localities in Pai’s and Wang’s novels respectively. In Pai’s Taipei People and New Yorkers, for example, the city is used to reflect the themes of estrangement and diaspora and provide a meaningful interpretation of these experiences. Wang’s Family Catastrophe can be considered a “memory book” in its vivid and concrete depiction of life in Taipei in the 1950s. The author painstakingly portrays the details of everyday life to render the physical surroundings and atmosphere of society at the time. In Backed against the Sea, the complex interaction between a mainland Chinese exile and the geographical and social realities of the local small town community is explored in depth. The discussion here examines intricate relationship between literary modernism and the concerns of regionalism. In conclusion, Wang Wen-hsing and his fellow modernist writers tried to break out of the strictures imposed on artistic endeavors by the government and to find new approaches in literary creation to link up with developments of the West. Their efforts have become the earliest examples of modernism in Taiwan after World War II. In going beyond the limits of vernacular Chinese in their works and moving the narrative esthetics of Chinese writing to a higher level, they are not only pioneers in the modernist literary movement in Taiwan but have established an important milestone in the history of Taiwan literature.
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