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    題名: 動物道德地位:辛格及雷根與佛教之比較論述;The moral status of animals:a comparison between Singer, Regan and Buddhist
    作者: 陳春吟;CHUN-YIN CHEN
    貢獻者: 哲學研究所碩士在職專班
    關鍵詞: 生命主體;感知;道德地位;本有價值;緣起;眾生平等;素食主義;moral status;dharma of dependent origination;inherent value;equalitarianism;subject-of-a-life;sentience;vegetarianism
    日期: 2011-07-18
    上傳時間: 2012-01-05 14:05:17 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 自從20世紀開始,人類對動物的地位與對待方式出現明顯的變化。動物除了作為人的財產,也開始成為人的同伴。對動物道德地位的探討,就成為倫理學上不可迴避的議題。因此,本文試從辛格、雷根與佛教觀點,來論述動物的道德地位。 辛格以感知能力來衡量一個生物是否有權利受到利益平等的考量。其倫理觀點以平等作為核心原則,當平等擴大到有感知能力的生命時,人們在種族、性別、物種等方面的隔閡和界限將被一一打破。但是將平等的基本原則,從一個群體延伸至另一群體,並不蘊涵我們必須以相同的方式對待這兩群體,或者是賦予此兩群體完全相同的道德地位。辛格的平等基本原則所要求的,是平等的考量,而非平等的對待方式 雷根的動物權利所捍衛的是一種平等主義的正義原則;這種正義原則認為個體有其本有價值,所以個體應該都是平等的。雷根認為本有價值是尊重原則的基礎;依照尊重原則,我們對所有具有本有價值的個體都負有直接義務。凡具有本有價值並符合生命主體的個體,都應得到尊重。雷根由「尊重原則」,延伸出「不傷害原則」、「最小凌駕原則」與「消除更糟原則」及「自由原則」。雷根強調不能因為人類的自身或其他利益而宰殺有生命主體的動物,因為動物的權利如同人類的權利一樣。 雖然辛格與雷根對動物道德地位的開拓有所貢獻,但是沃倫認為辛格與雷根的理論,在道德地位的劃分上仍存有爭議。另德.賈丁斯(Des Jardins)認為辛格與雷根,對道德地位的拓展,依舊無法逃脫人類中心主義的色彩。 從佛教緣起法則來討論動物道德地位的問題,可以解決界限爭議問題,亦可以避免人類中心主義的困境。因為,從緣起法性而言,有情是無二無別的平等。而且,佛法以有情為根本,主張一切問題的根本在於有情,需從有情自體去觀察,而人為五趣的中心,為有情上升下墮的樞紐,人在有情界有著特勝的地位。人對一切有情有一份特殊關懷義務;所以佛法依人類為本,織成自他間展轉相依,展轉差別的網絡,從自心而擴大到器世間的淨化,使一切在優美而有秩序的共存中,充滿生意的和諧。所以,可以避免人類中心主義的困境。 Since the 20th century, men began to treat animals in a different way. Before then, animals were men’s property but now animals can be men’s property as well as men’s friends. What we do to our friends and what to animals are quite different. So the moral status of animals becomes the most important moral issues. This thesis is to addresses the moral status of animals from the perspectives of Peter Singer, Tom Regan and Buddhist. For Singer, whether a being should be entitled to be treated under the principle of equal consideration of interests depends on its ability of sentience. Singer asserts that human society if we take the impartial element into ethical reasoning, we should at the same agree to give equal concern to all human beings as well as other creatures that can feel pain as humans. But for Singer, equal concern for other creatures does not mean to treat them equally. Tom Regan defends animal rights in terms of equalitarian justice. Men and animals have their own inherent values. That means both are for their own sake, not for others. The inherent values of an individual provide the basis for the respect principle. The respect principle specifies a direct duty of justice owed to all that have inherent values. Besides the respect principle, Regan also defends the principles of, harm, mini-ride, worse-off, and liberty. Under these principles, Regan asserts that animal rights should not be less important than human rights. Though Singer and Reagan really manifest the significance of moral status of animals, yet Warren thinks that Singer and Reagan fails to elaborate the difference between animals with moral status and those without moral status. And Des Jardins also thought that Singer and Reagan still cannot escape from the accusation of anthropocentrism Therefore, we have to evaluate moral status of animals from the Buddhist dharma of dependent origination. It not only helps to resolve the boundary issues but also avoids the predicament of anthropocentrism. From the dharma of dependent origination, all that has ability of sensibility should be reciprocally treated equally. The Dharma deems sentient beings as the foundation of the origins of universal law. So all the dilemmas in human life should be elucidated from the stand points of sentient beings. Since human beings are placed in the center of the world of sentient beings, men should take a great responsibility to take care of the sentient world. The Buddhist dharma’s point out the significance of men’s status in the sentient world, so it is quite natural for men to extend their care and duty to the whole world. With the guideline from Buddhist dharmas, we can achieve the harmony of the whole world and at the same time quiet the disturbance of anthropocentrism
    顯示於類別:[哲學研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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