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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4782


    Title: 三元宰相--商輅之研究
    Authors: 姜依官;YI-KUAN CHIANG
    Contributors: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 狀元;三元;商輅;宰相
    Date: 2007-05-21
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:32:27 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 「三元」為中國科舉考試一項特殊的成就,在中國歷史上擁有「三元」頭銜者,共計有十三人。而商輅是明朝僅有的「三元」人物。過去在學術界對其少有討論。本論文即以商輅為研究對象,探討其生平事蹟與一生之作為,更進一步瞭解其人之志業與在歷史中的意義。 商輅之所以能「三元及第」,有其客觀因素,如身處富庶之江南,文風鼎盛,書香傳家。在科舉路上除了個人的機運與貴人的扶持之外,更重要的是自身的努力與屢敗屢戰的精神。 商輅在朝為官時間長達二十二年之久,曾經歷「土木堡之變」、「京師保衛戰」及「奪門之變」。其所處之時期,正值明朝歷史上的轉折點。政治日趨混亂黑暗,內有宦官亂政,外有強敵侵擾。在此內憂外患之際,商輅能屹立不倒而為三朝元老,最高官至吏部尚書,以少保退休致仕,其之所以能在動盪的政治中受到敬重,其中有很大的關鍵是在於他的為人處事和平正直,簡樸端重,嚴以律己,寬以待人。 從商輅所遺留下來的《商文毅疏稿》、《文集》,以及他的後代子孫為他所做的《年譜》中,可以瞭解到他的政治思想與為政之道。從疏稿中,他針對時政,痛下針砭,對於當時的政治與社會狀況,也提出許多具體的看法。雖有些未能立即奏效,然其貢獻卻可見之於日後。故可證商輅為明代賢相之一,於「立德」、「立功」、「立言」三大不朽事業均有可稱述之處。 “San-yuan” (三元, to become the first in all three levels of civil service examination) is a distinguished accomplishment in Chinese civil service examinations. There were only thirteen San-yuan in Chinese history and Shang Lu (商輅) was the only San-yuan in Ming dynasty. However, there have been few academic works on him. This thesis will study Shang Lu with an emphasis on his life and career. The reason that Shang Lu was so successful in the examinations is related to his background and his own diligent efforts. He grew up in the Jiang-nan area that was famous for rich, populous and scholarly context. In addition to his fortune and also supports from high imposition people, he had devoted lots of time in preparing for the examinations. Even he failed a few times, he finally passed all the examinations and became the first graduate in all three examinations. Shang Lu served the Ming government for 22 years. Quite a few important events, such as the consequences of the Tumu incident, the Defense of Beijing, and the incident of “forcing the gate”, happened in this period. At this turning point of Ming history, the politics was getting gloom with the internal disorders caused by eunuchs and external invasions from outside the country. Shang Lu could survive in this dark period, was promoted to the rank the Minister of Personnel and retired with the position of Junior Guardian. The reason he could earn respect at this turbulent period was because he has kept a life of integrity and frugality with an attitude to regulate himself with rigid discipline and to treat others with generosity. From his work Shang Wenyi Shugao (商文毅疏稿 Draft Memorials of Shang Wenyi) , collected writings, and the chronicle of his life, we are able to understand his political thought and his management of political matters. In his Draft Memorials, he shed his views in contemporary politics and in making suggestions to correct political and social problems. Though his contributions could not be seen immediately, many of his suggestions proved to be useful in later times. Shang Lu was a sagacious minister in the Ming dynasty and was distinguished in his virtue, meritorious achievements, and his teachings.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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