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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4785


    Title: 明中葉首輔楊廷和之研究;The research of premier Yang Tinghe in the middle period of Ming Dynasty
    Authors: 葉淑萍;Shu-ping Yeh
    Contributors: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 大禮議;首輔;楊廷和;Great Ritual Controversy;premier;Yang Tinghe
    Date: 2008-03-17
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 09:32:31 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 本研究以楊廷和做為研究主題,探討楊廷和在明代中葉政治上的作為。從楊廷和的行事中,可以分析楊廷和擔任首輔時的人際關係與權力演變。經由楊廷和參與的國是與政爭,可以了解楊廷和在明中葉政治中的運作與影響。 正德十六年,武宗去世,因武宗無子繼承,又無親兄弟,出現皇位繼承的危機。首輔楊廷和遵從《皇明祖訓》,選定朱厚熜接任皇位。從武宗去世到世宗即位期間,皇位空缺三十七天,明代政局岌岌可危。楊廷和在新皇帝尚未抵達京城前,排除危險的局勢。他一連串關鍵性的決策,使明代的政局得到穩定,明代政治又再延續一百多年。因此,首輔楊廷和實是影響明代中後期政局發展的重要人物。 楊廷和入閣後,政局屢有變化。武宗寵信宦官,耽於逸樂,造成政治日漸混亂的局面。他擔任次輔時,藩王及流民起事已相繼發生。正德八年,他接任首輔後,民變及藩王起事的問題,仍持續出現。正德十六年,除了發生皇位空缺的危機,還發生「大禮」的爭論。從世宗即位開始,「大禮」的爭論持續不斷,引發楊廷和與世宗之間的衝突。最後,楊廷和乞休,世宗也聽任其去,結束其首輔生涯。 楊廷和歷事武宗、世宗兩朝,其執政作風大不相同。雖然他無力改變武宗的恣意作為,卻對武宗的失德之處仍然堅持。然而面對新皇帝世宗時,則採取強硬的態度,不肯退讓。他擔任首輔時,處事謹慎,不但壓制宦官的勢力,也得到朝臣的支持。楊廷和使首輔的地位提高,除了政治環境的因素外,還有他本身的能力和特質,才使閣權發展超過以往。然而,在皇權專制的情況下,他又被皇權壓制,只能短暫的扭轉政局。因此,世人應給楊廷和一個合理的歷史評價,而非以狹小的框架審視其作為。 This research is based on Yang Tinghe as the theme of study,which is concerning to investigate Yang’s political performance in the middle period of Ming Dynasty. According to the behavior of Yang Tinghe, we can analyse the changes of interpersonal relationships and power while Yang Tinghe taking charge of the premier. Base on the history of Yang Tinghe participating in the national major issue and political trouble, we can understand the political operation and influence of Yang Tinghe in the middle period of Ming Dynasty. Ming Wuzong passed away in 16th year of Zhengde. Because of Ming Wuzong having no son or blood brother, crisis of throne inheriting was appeared. Yang Tinghe complied with “Huang Ming Zu Xun” to select Zhu Houcong to take over the throne. During the period of Ming Wuzong’s death and Ming Shizong ascended, the throne was vacant for 37 days. The political situation of Ming Dynasty was an imminent crisis. But Yang Tinghe overcame the crisis before the new emperor reached the capital. Because of his successive decision, the political situation in the Ming Dynasty got steadily and the Ming Dynasty was extended for another 100 years. So Yang Tinghe was a very important person indeed who influenced the development in middle and later periods of Ming Dynasty. After Yang Tinghe entered the cabinet, the political situation changed a lot.Ming Wuzong trusted the eunuch unduly, indulged in the pleasure, and caused politics to be confused day by day. When he was served as vice-premier, the rebellion from prince under an emperor and vagrant already happened all the time. After Yang Tinghe took over the premier in 8th of Zhengde, the rebellion from prince under an emperor and vagrant still appeared continuously. In 16th year of Zhengde, Not only came up the crisis of inheriting the throne, but also the dispute of “Great Ritual Controversy”. Since Ming Shizong ascending the throne, the dispute of “Great Ritual Controversy” happened continuously. This issue caused conflict between Yang Tinghe and Ming Shizong. Finally, Yang Tinghe asked for retirement. Ming Shizong allowed him to quit his career of being a premier at his own choice. The style of Yang’s political positions were very different when he served for Ming Wuzong and Ming Shizong as a premier. Even he was unable to change the wilful deeds of Ming Wuzong, he still insisted to advise the morality lost of Ming Wuzong. However, when he face to this new emperor Ming Shizong, he took tough attitude, and unwilling to make a concession. While served as a premier, he was prudently in business handling. Not only suppressing the eunuch's force, but he also got support from courtier.Yang Tinghe improved the standing of the premier. Besides the political environment, his own ability and speciality improved the power of cabinet than ever. However, he was suppressed by imperial power in the autocratic situation. That’s why he can only turn back the political situation transiently. So, common people should offer an rational evaluation of Yang Tinghe in history, instead of examing in a critical way.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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