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    题名: 毛澤東對臺政策之研究(1949-1976);The Research of Mao Tse-tung’s Policy on Taiwan (1949-1976)
    作者: 袁應誠;Ying-Cheng Yuan
    贡献者: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    关键词: 一綱四目;毛澤東;臺海二次危機;臺灣問題;臺海一次危機;the second Taiwan Strait crisis;Mao Tse-tung;the Taiwan issue;the first Taiwan Strait crisis;the theory of one principle and four divisions
    日期: 2008-01-09
    上传时间: 2009-09-22 09:32:32 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 1949年初,毛澤東對臺灣問題就做了認真的思考,確立武力解放臺灣的方針。中共政權建立後,毛澤東就將解決臺灣問題,完成國家統一視為必須實現的歷史任務。中共一再重申「臺灣是中國不可分割的一部分,不管美國採取任何軍事阻撓,中國人民抱定決心,必將要解放臺灣。」韓戰停戰後,臺灣問題再次被凸顯出來。 在50年代裡,金馬問題在中美關係上扮演過重要角色,臺灣海峽爆發二次大規模的軍事衝突無不與此有所關聯。臺海二次危機是三年前危機的繼續與發展,但規模、影響和意義遠超過臺海一次危機。毛澤東在臺灣問題上從局部的軍事鬥爭走向全面政治、軍事、心理鬥爭的轉變,即把金門、馬祖等留在蔣中正手中,作為連接大陸與臺灣的紐帶,以此反對美國使臺灣與大陸永久分離的企圖。在此期間,毛澤東處理臺灣問題時,一旦涉及對美關係,他總是小心翼翼,步步為營。 長期以來,兩岸統一的問題一直是中共基本國家目標,從「武力解放臺灣」到「和平解放臺灣」,無論是武力或和平的統戰手段,其目標都只有一個,即促進兩岸統一,防止臺灣走向獨立之路。解決臺灣問題,實現中國的統一是毛澤東自中華人民共和國建國以來的一項重要的使命。毛澤東根據國內外形勢的發展變化,對臺灣問題作出一系列重大政策,指導著中共中央解放臺灣的實踐。這些重大政策是:「武力解放臺灣的政策、與美國展開大使級談判的政策、暫不收復金馬的政策、中共與外國建交中處理臺灣問題的政策及和平解放臺灣的政策。」這些重大政策是中共解決臺灣問題、實現統一過程中的重要步驟,至於周恩來只是執行毛澤東的政策而已。 In the early 1949, Mao Tse-tung had shown serious consideration to the Taiwan issue and mapped out the plan to liberate Taiwan by force. After the establishment of Chinese Communist government, Mao regarded the settling of the Taiwan issue and the unity of the country as historic tasks which must be fulfilled. China has stated repeatedly that “Taiwan is an integral part of China. No matter what military intervention the United States makes, Chinese people have decided to liberate Taiwan.” After the Korean War ceased, the Taiwan issue was once again noticed. In the 1950s, the issue of Kinmen and Matsu played an important role in Sino-US relations. The two massive military conflicts provoked in Taiwan Strait were correlated with it. The second Taiwan Strait crisis, the continuation of the first Taiwan Strait crisis, happened three years ago, had much larger scale, more meaning and stronger impact than the first one. Mao modified his policy on Taiwan from merely military fight to also political, military and psychological fight. To terminate the intention of the US to separate Taiwan from China, he left Kinmen and Matsu to Chiang Kai-shek (CKS), as a connection between Taiwan and China. During this period, when it was involved with Sino-US relations, Mao always dealt with the Taiwan issue with extreme caution. It has been a long time that the unity of Taiwan and China is always the essential goal for Chinese Communist government. No matter it is “Liberate Taiwan by Force” or “Liberate Taiwan in Peace,” the only goal that China strives to achieve is the unity of Taiwan and China. Since Chinese Communist government had been established, resolving the Taiwan issues and fulfilling the unity of China was an important mission for Mao. According to the development of internal and external China, Mao led his country on the way to liberate Taiwan with a series of crucial policies including “Liberate Taiwan by Force,” “Conduct Negotiations at the Ambassador-Level with US,” “Left Kinmen and Matsu to CKS,” “Handle the Taiwan Issue when Establishing Diplomatic Relations to Foreign Countries” and “Liberate Taiwan in Peace.” These policies were crucial steps for resolving the Taiwan issue and fulfilling the unity whereas Zhou En-lai was just executing Mao’s policies.
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