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    題名: 中共八大及其影響之研究;The Research of The Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China and its Effects
    作者: 朱茜;Chien Chu
    貢獻者: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    關鍵詞: 毛澤東;毛澤東思想;八大;八大路線;社會主義現代化;The Eighth National Congress Route;socialism modemization;Mao Tse-tung;The Eighth National Congress;Maoism
    日期: 2008-05-22
    上傳時間: 2009-09-22 09:32:58 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要:   自十九世紀到二十一世紀初,中國的變化是令人驚異的。十九世紀末,列強以武力敲開了中國的大門,中國在傳統社會秩序的逐步解體中被迫走上了現代化的歷程。整個二十世紀,中國歷史的基調是中國的現代化,但中國現代化之路卻充滿了崎嶇和坎坷。1949 年,中共以馬列主義意識形態結合群眾動員的方式所建立的現代國家,在50 年代初期發揮了巨大的社會動員能力,中共即以此力量解決了建國初期的國家政治、經濟與社會危機,也開始了共產中國現代化的道路。   從中共建政以後的新民主主義時期,大體上完成了民族的獨立、國家的統一以及階級的改造。1956年,中國完成了社會主義三大改造,也開始進入了社會主義。同年,中共召開第八次全國代表大會,這是中共在建政之後召開的首次全國代表大會,會議反映了當時國內外的特殊情勢,也體現了當時主要的時代任務。由八大所開創的建設目標,代表著共產中國正邁向以生產力提升為核心的社會主義現代化進程。對中共而言,中共的八大可說是中國社會主義發展史上的一個里程碑,「八大路線」為中共走向現代化目標奠定了政治基礎。   然而,隨著國家發展戰略的左傾,使得中共在八大之後的國家政策走向愈趨極端,不僅使八大所確立的政策方針產生中斷,也使中國喪失了50年代到70年代發展經濟的良機,因而造成了中國現代化進程的斷裂。而中共十一屆三中全會之後的改革開放政策,正可說是中共對於1956年八大路線的回復,中國又重新回到了現代化的歷史主流。本文願藉由對中國二十世紀現代化發展與斷裂的歷史回顧,讓今後的我們在發展的路上減少一些摸索,進而找到一條更清晰寬廣、真正屬於自己的道路。   From the 19th century to the early 21st century, the change in China is amazing. In the late 19th century, the Great (World) Powers knocked the Chinese gate opened by force. Chinese was forced to be modernized while its traditionally social orders were disintegrated gradually. Throughout the 20th century, the basic tune of Chinese history was modernization.However, the road of modernization in Chinese was full of frustrations. In 1949, the Chinese Communists established a modern country which was combined Marxist-Leninist ideology into the public mobilization. The country showed its huge power of social mobilization, and the power was used to solve its crises in politics, economics and society in the early stage of the country. It also started the modernized road of the Communist China.   The state independence, the national unification, and the hierarchical reformation were generally completed since the neo-democratism stage of the Chinese Communists government. In 1965, China completed its three great reforms of socialism, and entered its socialism stage. The Communist Party of China summoned the Eighth National Congress at the same year. This was the first national congress after the Chinese Communists established the government. The special circumstances in and out of the country were expressed, and the main duties of the times were showed in the congress. The goals created by the Eighth National Congress represented that Communist China was striding to raise its production as the core of socialistic modernization process. To the Chinese Communists, the Eighth National Congress was a milestone to the development history of Chinese socialism. “The Eighth National Congress Route” established the political basis for striding toward modernized goals.   Nevertheless, as the national development strategies declined to the left, the national policies after the Eighth National Congress were getting extreme. Not only were the guiding principles set up in the Eighth National Congress interrupted, but the good chance to develop Chinese economics from 1960s to 1980s was deprived. Therefore, the process of Chinese modernization was broken off. Yet the reformative and open policies after the Third Plenumof the Eleventh Party Congress could be the renaissance of the Eighth National Congressroute. Chain came back to the historical mainstream of modernization again. This article expects to review the modernized development and interruption of China in the 20th century so that we may reduce some gropes and find a clearer and broader road belonging to us.
    顯示於類別:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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