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    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/4809


    題名: 明代馬政之研究-以山東地區為中心
    作者: 郭永發;Yun-Fa Kuo
    貢獻者: 歷史研究所碩士在職專班
    關鍵詞: 馬政;山東;明代;Shan-dong;Ma-zheng;Ming
    日期: 2008-05-19
    上傳時間: 2009-09-22 09:33:05 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學圖書館
    摘要: 明代立國之初,由於北方蒙古強敵未滅,除了長城的屏障以外,馬匹孳蕃的多寡是決定能否與北方胡族對抗的主要因素,為了與善於騎馬的蒙古相對抗,使得政府必須重視馬政。馬政的興衰關係著國防的強弱,為達到強化國防的目的,政府將馬匹由官牧改為民牧。 制度隨著時空環境的變遷,而產生變化。明代馬政亦非從一而終,無任何的變化,這種變化對於馬政制度似乎不能改變其衰敗的命運。對於當時的官員而言,也知道馬政衰敗的情況,亦紛紛提出奏議,試圖改變這種衰敗的情況,最終還是一蹶不振。 山東民間孳牧馬匹,並非立國之初就開始實施,而是經過一段時間之後,在廣土眾民之中選擇山東,這時山東才開始民牧。山東除了全國一致性的賦稅之外,還要擔負政府所分配的養馬勞務,這對於山東民眾賦稅所造成的影響,以及養馬對民眾所造成的影響,是相當重大的。 本文依據相關原始文獻,以山東為重點,透過對山東馬政的研究,了解政府在民牧體制的運作情形,進一步了解整個明代馬政的變化,以及馬政的興衰,與山東馬政所扮演的角色。並藉此研究,分析明代馬政衰敗的因素,以及由官牧改為民牧與山東馬政所代表的意義。 Due to northern Mongolian enemy was not eliminated during early Ming dynasty,other than the Great Wall providing a shield, the horse propagation decisively became the major element to fight against the Mongolians who were excellent horsemen, the government must appreciate its horse policy. The prosperity of the horse policy and the strength of national defense were related, to strengthen its defense, the government had changed the horse policy from official to folk herding. There were systematic changes with time and space. The Ming dynasty horse policy was not at all times unchanged, the systematic change of horse policy had caused a deteriorated fate unavoidable. Officials at the time knew that the horse policy had deteriorated and proposal was raised to change this condition but eventually the policy still failed. Horse herding of Shan-dong folk was not initiated in the beginning of the dynasty, but after a certain span of time, when Shan-dong was chosen among many provinces. Besides being nationalized to pay tax, Shan-dong was assigned by government for horse herding service which affected the herdsmen extensively. This text was referred to original records, emphasizing Shan-dong, through research study of Shan-dong horse policy, to understand government management of the folk herding system and further understanding the changes of entire horse policy during the Ming dynasty, its rise and decline, the role of Shan-dong played in the horse policy . Thru this research, analyzed the elements which failed the horse policy of Ming dynasty, the change from official to folk herding and the significance of Shan-dong horse policy.
    顯示於類別:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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